This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Cold Start Impact on Vehicle Energy Use
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 05, 2001 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: SAE 2001 World Congress
This paper assesses the impact of the cold start phase of light duty vehicle use on energy use based on a review of large set of vehicle emissions test data from Canadian and U.S. Government databases. The data indicate that, at 24°C test ambient, a 20% increase in fuel use is measured in the “cold” Bag 1 driving compared with the “hot” Bag 3. Lower ambient conditions increase this penalty in a linear manner such that at the -6.7°C test condition, the penalty rises to 40-80%.
The paper then integrates the laboratory tests data with vehicle demographic and usage data gathered from consumer driving studies. Included in this data are results from a small pilot survey in Vancouver, which directly measured instantaneous fuel consumption of vehicles in consumer use. These data sets were then used to estimate the total “extra” energy used during the cold start phase of driving. The analysis indicates that in Canadian urban centres, up to 25% of the total fuel use is due to cold engine effects.
CitationTaylor, G. and Stewart, S., "Cold Start Impact on Vehicle Energy Use," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0221, 2001, https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-0221.
- Everall, P.F. Northrop, J. “The Excess Fuel Consumer by Cars When Starting from Cold” Road Research Laboratory Crowthorne, Berkshire, UK 1970
- Hayden, A.C.S. “The Effects of Technology on Automobile Fuel Economy Under Canadian Conditions” SAE 780935 Society of Automobile Engineers Warrendale, PA. 1978
- Ostrouchov, N. Polak, J. “Automobile Emissions and Fuel Economy at Low Ambient Temperatures, Environment Canada Ottawa 1978
- Eccleston, B.H. Hurn, R.W. “Ambient temperature and Trip Length - Influence on Automotive Fuel Economy and Emissions SAE 780613 Warrendale, PA 1978
- Ostrouchov, N. “Air Pollution Emissions and Controls - Low Temperature Effect Program”, Environment Canada Ottawa 1987
- Office of Mobile Sources Passenger Car Fuel Economy: EPA and Road Environmental Protection Agency Ann Arbor, MI 1980
- Pela, A. Yotter, E. Barth, M. Younglove, T. Sherman, A. Gruszecki, J. 1997 Collation of Large Empirical Second-by-Second Vehicle Activity Data into Multi-Linear Time Distribution Matrices 1997 CRC On-Road Emissions Workshop San Diego, CA. 1997
- Kyriakis, N.A. Andre, M. “Cold Start of Passenger Cars” International Journal of Vehicle Design 20 1-4 1998