This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Application of a New Soot Sensor for Exhaust Emission Control Based on Time Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence (TIRE-LII)
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 16, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The development of new generations of internal combustion engines requires appropriate measurement techniques for all relevant limited exhaust gas species and particulates. However, because of stricter future emission limits, there is a severe lack especially with respect to soot particles. Conventional methods, like gravimetric sampling, have substantial deficiencies in sensitivity and temporal resolution, which is strongly required for transient tests. Furthermore, artifacts arise from other exhaust components, like sulfuric acid, water vapor and volatile hydrocarbons.
In contrast to the state-of-the-art techniques, laser induced incandescence (LII) has been proved to be a favorable technique, which overcomes these deficiencies and offers additional information, which allows new insight into combustion phenomena. Besides soot mass concentration, also the soot primary particle size is accessible by this technique. In previous work, basic features of the technique have been introduced and some first applications have been shown for a passenger car and a truck engine. In these investigations a clear correlation was found between the soot mass concentration derived from LII and the filter smoke number measurements.
In this study, the application of an advanced soot sensor is demonstrated at a medium duty truck engine (MAN D08). This sensor prototype allows an easy adaptation to the exhaust pipe without the need of any further adjustment. A fully automatic on-line evaluation of the measurement data allows an easy use of the compact measurement system. The influence of a few different fuel types on particulate mass concentration and primary particle size was preliminarily investigated at different stationary operation points. Additionally, some first transient tests have been performed with particularly high temporal resolution. The results are discussed in some detail and an outlook on future work is given.
- S. Schraml - Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
- C. Heimgärtner - Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
- S. Will - Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
- A. Leipertz - Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
- A. Hemm - ESYTEC GmbH, Erlangen
CitationSchraml, S., Heimgärtner, C., Will, S., Leipertz, A. et al., "Application of a New Soot Sensor for Exhaust Emission Control Based on Time Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence (TIRE-LII)," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2864, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2864.
SAE 2000 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V109-4; Published: 2001-09-15
Number: V109-4; Published: 2001-09-15
- Carmarsa M. Hublin M. MacKinvon R. “Impact of EPEFE data on the European Auto-Oil Process” SAE Paper 961076 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1996
- Ryan T. Erwin J. Mason R. Moulton S. “Relationship between Fuel Properties and Composition and Diesel Engine Combustion Perfromance and Emissions” SAE Paper 941018 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1994
- Lange W. Cooke J. A. Gadd P. et. al. “Influence of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions form Advanced Heavy-Duty Engine Considering the Effect of Natural and Additve Enhanced Cetane Number” SAE Paper 972894 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1997
- Starr M. E. SAE Paper 972904 “Influence on Transient Emissions at Various Injection Timings, Using Cetane Improvers, Bio-Diesel, and Low Aromatic Fuels” Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1997
- Becker R.F. SAE Paper 972903 “Reduction in Particulate and Black Smoke in Diesel Exhaust Emissions” Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1997
- Muntean G.G. “A Theoretical Model for the Correlation of Smoke Number to Dry Particulate Concentration in Diesel Exhaust” SAE Paper 1999-01-515 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1999
- Melton L.A. “Soot Diagnostics Based on Laser Heating” Appl. Opt. 23 2201 2208 1984
- Shaddix C.R. Harrington J.E Smyth K.C. “Quantitative Measurements of Enhanced Soot Production in a Flickering Methane/Air Diffusion Flame” Combust. Flame 99 723 732 1994
- Quay B. Lee T.-W. Ni T. Santoro R.J. “Spatially Resolved Measuremets of Soot Volume Fraction Using Laser-Induced Incandescence” Combust. Flame 97 384 392 1994
- Hofeldt D.L. “Real-Time Soot Concentration Measurement Technique for Engine Exhaust Streams” SAE Paper 930079 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1993
- Case M. E. Hofeldt D.L. “Soot Mass Concentration Measurements in Diesel Engine Exhaust Using Laser-Induced Incandescence” Aerosol Science and Technology 25 46 60 1996
- Will S. Schraml S. Leipertz A. “Two-Dimensional Soot-Particle Sizing by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence” Opt. Lett. 20 2342 2344 1995
- Will S. Schraml S. Leipertz A. “Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Soot Diagnostics Based on Laser-Induced Incandescence” Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion The Combustion Institute Pittsburgh, Pa. 1996 2277 2284
- Will SEQS. Schraml S. Bader K. Leipertz A. “Performance Characteristics of Soot Primary Particle Sizes Measurements by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence” Appl. Opt. 37 5647 5658 1998
- Schraml S. Will S. Leipertz A. “Simultaneous Measurement of Soot Mass Concentration and Primary Particle Size in the Exhaust of a DI Diesel Engine by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TIRE-LII)” SAE Paper 1999-01-0146 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1999
- Schraml S. Will S. Leipertz A. “Performance Characteristics of TIRE-LII Soot Diagnostics in Exhaust Gases of Diesel Engines” SAE Paper 2000-01-2002 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 2000
- Snelling D.R. Smallwood G.J. Campbell I.G. Medlock J.E. Gülder Ö.L. “Development and Application of Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) as a Diagnostic Tool for Soot Particulate Measurements” AGARD Conference Proceedings 598 23-1 23 -9 1997
- Mewes B. Seitzman J.M. “Soot Volume Fraction and Particle Size Measurements with Laser-Induced Incandescence” Appl. Opt. 36 709 717 1997
- Wainner R.T. Seitzman J.M. Martin S.R. “Soot Measurements in a Simulated Engine Exhaust Using Laser-Induced Incandescence” AIAA Journal 37 738 743 1999
- Vander Wal R.L. Ticich T.M. Stephens A.B. “Can Soot Primary Particle Size Determined Using Laser-Induced Incandescence?” Comb. Flame 116 291 296 1999
- Snelling D.R. Smallwood G.J. Sawchuk G.J. et al. “Particulate Matter Measurements in a Diesel Engine Exhaust by Laser-Induced Incandescence and Standard Gravimetric Procedure” SAE Paper 1999-01-3653 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1999
- Snelling D.R. Smallwood G.J. Sawchuk G.J. et al. “In-Situ Real-Time Characterization of Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine Exhaust by Laser-Induced Incandescence” SAE Paper 2000-01-1994 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 2000
- Dasch C.J. “Continous-Wave Probe Laser Investigation of Laser Vaporization of Small Soot Particles in a Flame” Appl. Opt. 23 2209 2215 1984
- Signer M. Heinze P. Mercogliano R. Stein H.J. “European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) - Heavy Duty Diesel Study” SAE Paper 961074 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, Pa. 1996