This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Cyclically Resolved Simultaneous Flame and Flow Imaging in a SI Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 16, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A novel dual seeding method has been developed to obtain full bore cyclically resolved simultaneous flame images and associated velocity fields in an optically accessed single cylinder research spark ignition engine. The technique has been used to study interaction between the propagating flame and in-cylinder gas motion. Light generated by a fast repetition rate copper vapour laser was formed into a thin light sheet, which passed horizontally through the disc shaped combustion space of a spark ignition engine having complete overhead optical access. Mie scattered light from relatively sparse and large particles (∼65μm) at successive intervals allowed flow definition by particle tracking velocimetry. Simultaneous scattering from dense small seed (∼0.22μm) was used to generate flame front images, which were digitised and analysed to quantify turbulent flame structure and development. The flame was shown to have significant effect on local unburned gas motion as well as vice versa. Although principally concerned with the optical techniques, in their demonstration, some observations are made on cyclic variation and the effects of axial swirl.
CitationCairns, A. and Sheppard, C., "Cyclically Resolved Simultaneous Flame and Flow Imaging in a SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2832, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2832.
- Bradley, D., Lau, A.K.C. and Lawes, M.: “Flame Stretch Rate as a Determinant of Turbulent Burning Velocity”, Phil. Trans. R.Soc. London, A338, 359, (1992).
- Soculiuc, M. and Brun, M.: “A Study on the Speed Dependence of the Intake Flow of a Motored Four-Stroke Engine using LDV”, Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser techniques to Fluid Mechanics, (1996).
- Arcoumanis, C., Bae, C.S. and Hu, Z.: “Flow and Combustion in a Four-Valve Spark Ignition Engine”, SAE Paper No. 940475, (1994).
- Bopp, S., Vafidis, C. and Whitelaw, J.: “The Effects of Engine Speed on TDC Flow-Field in a Motored Reciprocating Engine”, SAE Paper No. 860023, (1986).
- Miles, P.C., Green, R.M and Witze, P.O.: “Comparison of In-Cylinder Scavenging Flows in a Two-Stroke Cycle Engine Under Motored and Fired Conditions”, Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser techniques to Fluid Mechanics, (1994)
- Hall, M.J. and Bracco, F.V.: “A Study of Velocities and Turbulence Intensities Measured in Firing and Motored Engines”, SAE Paper No. 870453, (1987).
- Witze, P.O., Martin, J.K. and Borgnakke, C.: “Fluid Motion During Flame Propagation in a Spark ignition Engine”, SAE Paper No. 840377, (1984).
- Fukano, Y., Hisaki, H., Kida, S. and Kadota, T.: “Two-Dimensional In-Cylinder Flow Field in a Natural Gas Fueled Spark Ignition Engine Probed by PTV and its Dependence on Engine Specifications”, SAE Paper No. 1999-01-1534, (1999).
- Denlinger, A.R., Guezennec, Y. and Choi, W.: “Dynamic Evolution of the 3-D Flow Field During the Latter Part of the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine”, SAE Paper No. 980485, (1998).
- Miller, R., Newman, C., Dai, W., Trigui, N., Davis, G., Trumpy, D. and Glidewell, J.: “Up-Front Prediction of the Effects of Cylinder Head Design on Combustion Rates in SI Engines”, SAE Paper No. 981049, (1998)
- Dai, W., Newman, C. and Davis, G.C.: “Predictions of In-Cylinder Tumble Flow and Combustion in SI Engines with a Quasi-Dimensional Model”, SAE Paper No. 961962, (1996).
- Khaligi, B.: “Intake Swirl Process Generated by an Engine Head: A Flow Visualisation Study”, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 113/433, (1991).
- Reeves, M. Garner, C.P., Dent, J.C. and Halliwell, N.A.: “Particle Image Velocimetry measurements of in-cylinder flow in a multi-valve internal combustion engine”, IMechE Technical Paper D06194, (1996).
- Reuss, D.L.: “Cyclic Variability of Large-Scale Turbulent Structures in Directed and Undirected IC Engine Flows”, SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0246, (2000).
- Rouland, E., Trinite, M., Dionnet, F., Floch, A. and Ahmed, A.: “PIV Measurements in a High Tumble Engine for In-Cylinder Flow Structure Analysis”, SAE Paper No. 972831, (1997).
- Landreth, C.C. and Adrian, R.J.: “Electrooptical Image Shifting for Particle Image Velocimetry”, Applied Optics Vol. 27, pp4216-4220, (1988).
- Adrian, R.J.: “Image Shifting Technique to Resolve Directional Ambiguity in Double-Pulsed Velocimetry”, Applied Optics Vol. 25, No.21, pp3855-3858, (1986)
- Nino, E., Gajdeczko, B.F. and Felton, P.G.: “Two-Color Particle Image Velocimetry in an Engine with Combustion”, SAE Paper No. 930872, (1993).
- Gogineni, G., Goss, L., Pestian, D., Trump, D. and Rivir, R.: “High-Resolution Digital Two-Colour PIV (D2CPIV) and its Application to High Freestream Turbulent Flows”, Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser techniques to Fluid Mechanics, (1996).
- Rassweiler, G.M. and Withrow, L.: “Motion Pictures of Engine Flames Correlated with Pressure Cards”, SAE Trans., Vol. 83, pp185-204 (1938), re-issued as SAE Paper No. 800131 (1980).
- Bopp, S.C., Cousyn, B.J., Green, R.M. and Witze, P.O.: “Experimental Study of the Scavenging and Combustion Processes in a Two-Stroke Cycle Research Engine”, SAE Paper No. 920183, (1992).
- Gatowski, J.A., Heywood, J.B. and Deleplace, C.: “Flame Photographs in a Spark Ignition Engine”, Combustion and Flame Vol. 56, pp71-81, (1984).
- Nye, D.A., Lee, J.G., Lee, T-W. and Santavicca, D.A.: “Flame Stretch Measurements During the Interaction of Premixed Flames and Karman Vortex Streets Using PIV”, Combustion and Flame Vol. 94, pp.167-176, (1996).
- Kim, K.S., Choi, M.S., Lee, C.H. and Kim, W.T.: “In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution Measurements Using PLIF in a SI Engine”, SAE Paper No.970509, (1997).
- Zhao, F.Q., Taketomi, M., Nishida, K. and Hiroyasu, H.: “PLIF Measurements of the Cyclic Variation of Mixture Concentration in a SI Engine”, SAE Paper No. 940988, (1994).
- Zur Loye, A.O. and Bracco, F.V.: “Two-Dimensional Visualisation of Pre-Mixed Charge Flame Structure in an IC Engine”, SAE Paper No. 870454, (1987).
- Hicks, R.A., Lawes, M., Sheppard, C.G.W. and Whitaker, B.J.: “Multiple Laser Sheet Imaging Investigation of Turbulent Flame Structure in a Spark-Ignition Engine”, SAE Trans 103 (Sect. 4) 1463-1482, (1994). Also published as SAE Paper 941992, (1994).
- Mantzaras, J., Felton, P.G. and Bracco, F.V.:“Three-Dimensional Visualisation of Premixed-Charge engine Flames: Islands of Reactants and Products, Fractal Dimensions and Homogeneity”, SAE Paper No. 881635, (1988)
- Lawes, M., Sheppard, C.G.W. and Woolley, R.: “Three Dimensional Mapping of Turbulent Flame Fronts”, Ninth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (Lisbon), (1998).
- Reuss, D.L. and Rosalik, M.E.: “PIV Measurements During Combustion in a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine”, Ninth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (Lisbon), (1998).
- Reuss, D.L., Bardsley, M., Felton, P.G., Landreth, C.C. and Adrian, R.J.: “Velocity, Vorticity, and Strain-Rate Ahead of a Flame Measured in an Engine using Particle Image Velocimetry”, SAE Paper no. 900053, (1990).
- Mouqallid, M., Lecordier, B. and Trinite, M.: “High Speed Tomography Analysis of Flame Propagation in a Simulated Internal Combustion Engine-Applications to a Nonuniform mixture”, SAE Paper 941990, (1994).
- Cairns, A., PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, (2000/2001).
- Pan, J. and Sheppard, C.G.W: “A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Modes of End Gas Autoignition Leading to Knock in Spark Ignition Engines”, SAE Paper No. 942060, (1996).
- Atashkari, K.:“Experimental Study of Flow and Turbulence in a V-flame Burner and a SI Engine”, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mech. Eng., University of Leeds, (1997).
- Baritaud, T.A. and Green, R.M.: “A 2-D Flame Visualisation Technique Applied to the I.C. Engine”, SAE Paper No.860025, (1986).
- Peters, N.: “Laminar Flamelet Concepts in Turbulent Combustion”, 21st Int. Symp. On Comb., pp1231-1250, (1996).
- Gillespie, L., Lawes, M., Sheppard, C.G.W., and Woolley, R.: “Aspects of Laminar and Turbulent Burning Velocity Relevant to SI Engines”, SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0192 and SP-1492, (2000).
- Fraser, R.A., Felton, P.G., Bracco, F.V. and Santavicca, D.A.: “Preliminary Turbulence Length Scale Measurements in a Motored IC Engine”, SAE Paper No.860021, (1986).
- Ziegler,G.F.W, Zettlitz, A., Meinhardt, P., Herweg, R., Maly, R., Pfister, W.: “Cycle-resolved Two-Dimensional Flame Visualisation in a Spark Ignition Engine”, SAE Paper No.881634, (1988).
- Morsi, A.S. and Alexander, A.J.: “An Investigation of Particle Trajectories in Two-phase Flow Systems”, J.Fluid Mech., Vol. 55 part 2, pp193-208, (1972)