This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of a High Performance Anti-Wear Additive Providing Protection Against Valve Seat Recession Combined with Octane Enhancement in Treated Fuel
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 19, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Response to lead phase out in European countries depends on a number of factors including refinery configuration and vehicle population.
Vehicle populations differ widely in different EU member states, and in some countries engineering changes made during the 1970s and 1980s have left the year 2000 vehicle populations able to operate on unleaded gasoline with no problems. For various demographic reasons, in certain other countries, a substantial proportion of the vehicle population still requires lead or an alternative additive to provide protection against the well known problem of valve seat recession. Benefits can arise from the use of additives able to increase both octane quality and to provide protection from valve seat recession. A development programme was undertaken to produce an additive formulation which could combine octane enhancement with excellent protection from valve seat recession. The programme involved vehicle and engine tests designed to quantify the performance of the additive and to assess its suitability for widespread use. These tests included valve seat recession performance, and octane determinations.
CitationMulqueen, S., Vincent, M., and Mulcare, C., "Development of a High Performance Anti-Wear Additive Providing Protection Against Valve Seat Recession Combined with Octane Enhancement in Treated Fuel," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2016, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2016.
SAE 2000 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V109-4 ; Published: 2001-09-15
Number: V109-4 ; Published: 2001-09-15
- Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels.
- CEC EN228 Unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles specification, 1993.
- Colwell A T, “Recent developments in poppet valves” SAE Transactions volume 26, 1931, p358.
- Godfrey D and Courtenay R L, “Investigation of the mechanism of exhaust valve seat wear in engines run on unleaded gasoline”, SAE 710356, 1971.
- Giles W, “Valve problems with lead free gasoline”, SAE 710368, 1971.
- Kent W L & Finnigan F T, “The effect of some fuel and operating parameters on exhaust valve seat wear”, SAE 710673.
- 1998 Worldwide gasoline and diesel fuel survey, Associated Octel Company Ltd, Internal Report
- McArragher J S, Clarke L J and Paesler H, “Prevention of valve seat recession in European markets”, CEC Fourth International Symposium on the performance evaluation of automotive fuels and lubricants, May 1993, Birmingham, United Kingdom, CEC/93/EF 19.
- Pemberton M, “Worldwide vehicle population, its age and structure, 1999 Edition”, FT Automotive, Financial Times Business Ltd, London.
- Howard Stott, “Potential high temperature corrosion in automobiles running on lead replacement gasoline” Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester, United Kingdom, Internal publication.
- Schug K P, Guttman H J, Preuss A W, Schadlich K, “Effects of ferrocene as a gasoline additive on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of catalyst equipped vehicles”, SAE 900154.
- German Benzinbleigesetz (lead law). Waiver under Paragraph 2, as amended on 18.12.1987 BGBl. 87,2810.
- Laveskog A, AB Svensk Bilprovning Motortestcenter, Sweden. Emission test of gasoline containing ferrocene, Report No. MTC 92315.
- Valberg P A, Keating J L, “Ferrocene and ferrocene- based fuel additives: Literature review and inhalation toxicity test report analysis”, Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA, May 1997
- Peters L, “Investigation of Otto Engine exhausts resulting from the combustion of fuel with added ferrocene”, Fraunhofer Institut Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, D-30625 Hannover, Germany, July 1996.
- Rosenkranz J, Quisekk F, Zelenka P, “Fleet testing of Eurosuper fuel with 15ppm Ferrocene additive”, AVL, Graz, Austria, 2 April 1991.
- Barker R F, “Some Aspects of the Problem of Valve-Seat Wear With Non-Leaded Gasolines”. Paper C291/73 presented at I. Mech E. First European Tribology Conference, London, 1973.
- Croudace M C, and Wusz T, “The Effect of Low Lead Gasolines and Some Aftermarket Lead Substitutes on Exhaust Valve Seat Wear.” SAE 872076
- Vincent M W, and Russell T J, “A Review of Worldwide Approaches to the Use of Additives to Prevent Exhaust Valve Seat Recession”. 4th Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference, Jan. 1998, Singapore
- Federation of British Historic Vehicle Clubs, “Measurement of Exhaust Valve Seat Recession Using Rover “A”Series Engine. Documented Method number FBHVC 98/01.”
- Australian Standard “Evaluation of Devices and Additives Which Claim to Improve Vehicle Performance” Document No. AS 4430-1996, Published by Standards Australia.
- Watson H, University of Melbourne. “Valve Seat Recession and Knock Limited Ignition Timing Tests.Part 2 Valvemaster Additive” Report to New Zealand Automobile Association, Feb. 1998.