This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Comparison of Vehicle Structural Integrity and Occupant Injury Potential in Full-frontal and Offset-frontal Crash Tests
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 06, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: SAE 2000 World Congress
The frontal crash standard in the USA specifies that the full front of a vehicle impact a rigid barrier. Subsequently, the European Union developed a frontal crash standard that requires 40 percent of the front of a vehicle to impact a deformable barrier. The present study conducted paired crashes of vehicles using the full-frontal barrier procedure and the 40 percent offset deformable barrier procedure. In part, the study was to examine the feasibility of adding an offset test procedure to the frontal crash standard in the USA.
Frontal-offset and full-frontal testing was conducted using both the mid-size (50th percentile male Hybrid III) and the small stature (5th percentile female Hybrid III) dummies. Five vehicle models were used in the testing: Dodge Neon, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, Chevrolet Venture and Ford Contour. In the crash tests, all dummies were restrained with the available safety belt systems and frontal air bags.
Both dummy sizes often exceeded the allowable lower leg injury criteria both in the offset tests and the full-frontal tests. Lower leg injury occurrences in real world crashes, based on National Automotive Sampling System data, show that many lower leg injuries occur in both fullfrontal and offset type crashes. The results also showed that vehicles with a stiffer occupant cage did well in the offset test. In addition, the test data suggested that the small female dummy may be exposed to a high risk of neck injury if positioned close to the deploying air bag.
- Johanna C. Lowrie - ALCOSYS, Inc.
- Nathaniel M. Beuse - ALCOSYS, Inc.
- Brian T. Park - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Susan C. Partyka - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Richard M. Morgan - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- James R. Hackney - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- John Lee - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Lori Summers - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
CitationPark, B., Partyka, S., Morgan, R., Hackney, J. et al., "Comparison of Vehicle Structural Integrity and Occupant Injury Potential in Full-frontal and Offset-frontal Crash Tests," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0879, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-0879.
SAE 2000 Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems
Number: V109-6; Published: 2001-09-15
Number: V109-6; Published: 2001-09-15
Vehicle Aggressivity and Compatibility in Automotive Crashes 2000
Number: SP-1525; Published: 2000-03-06
Number: SP-1525; Published: 2000-03-06
- Hackney, J.R. The Effects of FMVSS No. 208 and NCAP on Safety as Determined from Crash Tests Results, Proceedings of the 13 th International Technical conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, Paris, France, November 1991
- Traffic Safety Facts 1996 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Report No. DOT HS 808 649, 17 December 1997
- Luchter, S. Long Term Consequences of Lower Extremity Injuries, International Conference on Pelvic and Lower Extremity Injuries Proceedings, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation December 1995
- Miller, T. R. Martin, P. G. Crandall, J. R. Cost of Lower Limb injuries in Highway Crashes, International Conference on Pelvic and Lower Extremity Injuries Proceedings, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration U.S. Department of Transportation December 1995
- Pletschen, B. Schunert, D. Deubert, M. Herrmann, R. Zeidler, F. Application of the Injury Cost Scale (ICS) to Mercedes-Benz Accident Data, 34 th Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings November 1990
- Morgan, R. M. Eppinger, R. H. Hennessey, B. C. Ankle Joint Injury Mechanisms for Adults in Frontal Automotive Impact, 35 th Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings, November 1994
- Stucki, S.L. Ragland, C. Hennessey, B. Hollowell, W.T. NHTSA’s Improved Frontal Protection Research Program, Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 950497 1995
- Grosch, L. Baumann, K Holtze, H Schwede, W. Safety Performance of Passenger Cars Desinged to Accommodate Frontal Impacts with Partial Barrier Overlap, Automotive Frontal Impacts, Society of Automotive engineers, Paper No. SP-782 1989
- Planath-Skogasmo, I. Nilsson, R. Frontal Crash Test - A Comparison of Methods, 38 th Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings, Paper No. 942228 , November 1994
- Hobbs, A. C. The Need for Improved Structural Integrity in Frontal Car Impacts 13 th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, Paper No. S9-O-12, November 1991
- O’Neil, B. Lund, A. Zuby, D. Estep, C. New Vehicle Crashworthiness Evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. 15 th International Technical Conference on the Enhance Safety of Vehicles May 1996
- Fildes, B. Digges, K. Dyte, D. Gantzer, S. Seyer, K. Benefits of a Frontal Offset Regulation Federal Office of Road Safety Document., Report No. CR165 1996
- Welbourne, E.R. “Offset-frontal Crash Tests: Summary Results of a Programme to Validate the Proposed Test Protocol of EEVC Working Group 11,” Technical Memorandum, Vehicle Systems Division, Transport Canada Road Safety, September 1996
- National Accident Sampling System 1988 Crashworthiness Data System, Data Collection, Coding, and Editing Manual, HS 807 196, NHTSA, January 1988.
- he Abbreviated Injury Scale, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Morton Grove, Illinois, 1990
- Kleinberger, M. Summers, L. Mechanisms of Injuries for Adults and Children Resulting from Air Bag Interaction, 41 st Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Orlando, Florida, November 1997
- Crandall, J.R. Duma, S.M. Bass C.R. Pilkey, W.D. Kuppa, S.M. Khaewpong, N. Eppinger, R. Thoracic Response and Trauma of Out-Of-Position Drivers Resulting from Air Bag Deployment, 41 st Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Orlando, Florida, November 1997
- Chidester, A.B. Rutland, K.W. Air Bag Crash Investigations, 16 th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Windsor, Canada, June 1998
- Hopper, R.H. McElhaney, J.H. Myers, B.S. Mandibular and Basilar Skull Fracture Tolerance, 38 th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 942213 1994
- O’Neill, B. Preuss, C. A. Nolan, J. M. Relationships between Computed Delta V and Impact Speeds for Offset Crash Tests, Proceedings of the 15 th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Melbourne, Australia, May 1996
- Stucki, S. L. Fessahaie, O. Comparison of Measured Velocity Change in Frontal Crash Tests to NASS Computed Velocity Change, Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 980649 1998
- Nolan, J.M. Preuss, C.A. Jones, S.L. O’Neill, B. An Update on the Relationships between Computed Delta Vs and Impact Speeds for Offset Crash Tests, 16 th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Windsor, Canada, June 1998
- House Conference Report No. 104-785 to accompany HR 3675, H10409 September 16 1996
- American Automotive Manufacturers Association, Petition for Rulemaking, FMVSS 208 submitted to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration August 23, 1996
- Lindsey, A. G. Petition Seeking to Change the Size of the Dummy in FMVSS No. 208, submitted to NHTSA on September 1 1996
- SAE Hybrid III 5 th Seating Position Task Group; 1999
- Park, B.T. Morgan, R.M. Hackney, J.R. Lee, J. Stucki, S.L. Lowrie, J.C. ”Frontal Offset Crash Test Study Using 50 th Percentile Male and 5th Percentile Female Dummy,” Proceedings of the 16 th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Windsor, Canada, June 1998
- Hybrid III: The First Human-Like Crash Test Dummy, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1994
- Park, B.T. Morgan, R.M. Hackney, J.R Partyka, S. Kleinberger, M.K. Sun, E. Smith, H.E. Lowrie, J.C. “Upper Neck Response of the Belt and Air Bag Restrained 50 th Percentile Hybrid III Dummy in the USA’s New Car Assessment Program, 42 nd Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings November 1998
- Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection. [Docket No. 74-14; Notice 114] 62 53 12960 19 March 1997
- Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development., Anthropomorphic Dummies for Crash and Escape System Testing. AGARD Advisory Report 330 July 1996
- Report to Congress Status Report on Establishing a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for Frontal Offset Crash Testing April 1997
- Manary, M.A. Reed, M.P. Flannagan, C.A. Schneider, L.W. ATD Positioning Based on Driver Posture and Position. Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 983163 1998