This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Condition Monitoring of Diesel Engines Using Acoustic Measurements Part 1: Acoustic Characteristics of the Engine and Representation of the Acoustic Signals
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 06, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: SAE 2000 World Congress
In this, Part 1 of the paper, the sound generation of a diesel engine is modelled based upon the combustion process, and time-frequency analysis is used to reveal the underlying characteristics of the sound waves. Simulation shows that the frequency bandwidth of the generated acoustic signals is significantly widened around the engine's top dead centre (TDC) positions, with the energy concentrated predominantly at the firing frequency and its harmonics. As anticipated, the model predicts an increase in sound level with increasing engine load and speed, and the model-predicted noise generation is correlated with waveforms extracted from intrusively-monitored cylinder pressure.
Real monitored data, taken in an ordinary engine test-bay environment and without special acoustic monitoring precautions, is shown to be highly contaminated due to adverse environmental acoustics and intrusive background noise. The representation of acoustic signals using the smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT), however, is found to permit recognition of the adverse influences of the measurement environment. This subsequently allows the monitored sound characteristics to be closely correlated to the combustion process. Part 1 concludes with an investigation of the influences of the measurement environment upon the acoustic data, and of the signal conditioning and representation techniques required to reveal the condition-indicating content of the monitored acoustic data.
The sister paper to this (“Part 2 - Fault Detection and Diagnosis”), puts the developed methodology to the test by investigating its capability to detect and distinguish between a range of realistic yet incipient engine faults on a standard production engine in an uncontrolled industrial environment.
CitationGu, F., Li, W., Ball, A., and Leung, A., "The Condition Monitoring of Diesel Engines Using Acoustic Measurements Part 1: Acoustic Characteristics of the Engine and Representation of the Acoustic Signals," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0730, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-0730.
- Eastwood P.G. Halliwell N.A. Carter J.N. ‘The Detection of Faults in Diesel Fuel Injectors’ Int. Journal of Vehicle Design 8 4,5,6 455 464 1987
- Gu F. Ball A.D. Rao K.K. ‘Diesel Injector dynamic Modelling and Estimation of Injection Parameters from Impact Response - Part II: Prediction of Injection Parameters from Monitored Vibration’ Proc. of I.Mech.E. Part D - Journal of Automobile Engineering 303 311 Aug. 1996
- Chaudhri R. “Development and Application of Machine Health Monitoring Techniques for Reciprocating Machines” Proceedings of COMADEM'91 475 479 1991
- Austen A.E.W. Priede T. ‘Origins of Diesel Engine Noise’ Proc. of I.Mech.E. Symposium on Engine Noise and Noise Suppression London 19 32 1958
- Maetani Y. Niihura T. Suzuki S. Arai S. Okamura H. ‘Analysis and Reduction of Engine Front Noise Induced by the Vibration of the Crankshaft System’ SAE Paper 931336 1694 1700 1993
- Osama K. Yuichi, F. ‘An Approach to Improve Engine Sound Quality’ SAE Paper 880083 1988
- Russell M.F. Haworth R. ‘Combustion Noise from High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engines’ SAE Paper 850973 4.811 4.831 1985
- Schneider M. Schmille K. Pischinger F. ‘Regularities of Cylinder Pressure Oscillations and their Effects on the Combustion Process and Noise’ SAE Paper 872248 4.1042 4.1049 1987
- Nagoya K. ‘An Evaluation of Combustion Noise Generation in Diesel Engine Structure’ SAE Paper 890126 51 59 1989
- Wolschendorf J. Durnholz M. Schmillen K. “The IDI Engine and its Combustion Noise Variations” SAE Paper 910228 289 296 1991
- Li Z. Akishita S. Kato T. ‘Engine Failure Diagnosis with Sound Signals Using the Wavelet Transform’ SAE Paper 970034 79 86 1997
- Li W. Gu F. Ball A.D. Leung A.Y.T. ‘A Comparative Study of Vibration and Acoustics Condition Monitoring’ Research Report University of Manchester April 1998
- Gu F. Ball A.D. ‘Enhancement of the Fourier Spectrum of Acoustic Signals for Machinery Condition Monitoring’ Research Report University of Manchester June 1998
- Gu F. Ball A.D. ‘Estimation of Noise Corrupted Diagnostic Components Using a Robust Kalman Filter’ Research Report University of Manchester October 1998
- Dixon J. Grover E.C. Priede T. ‘Simulation of Combustion Induced Noise in Non-Running Engine Structure by Impulsive Hydraulic Excitation’ SAE Paper, pp.1421-1429, 820364 1982
- Aouichi A. Herrmann M. ‘Diesel Engine Noise and Internal Excitation Mechanisms’ SAE Paper, pp.71-85, 890132 1989
- Edelbrock P. ‘Room Acoustic Modelling’ http://www.netroedge.com/∼phil/RoomSim/RoomSim.shtml 1 8 1997
- Gu F. Ball A.D. ‘Use of the Smoothed Pseudo-Wigner Ville Distribution in the Interpretation of Monitored Vibration Data’ Maintenance 10 2 16 23 1995
- Barache D. Antoine J. P. Dereppe J. M. “The Continuous Wavelet Transform, an Analysis Tool for NMR Spectroscopy” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 128 1 11 1997
- Rioul O. Veetterli M. ‘Wavelets and Signal Processing’ IEEE SP. Magazine 15 38 1991
- Lyon R. H. DeJong R. G. “Design of a High-Level Diagnostic System” Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress, and Reliability in Design 107 17 21 1984
- Priede T. Baker J. M. Grover E. C. Ghazy R. “Characteristics of Exciting Forces and Structural Response of Turbocharged Diesel Engines” SAE Paper 850972 801 809 1985
- Kanda Okubo M. Yonezawa T. “Analysis of Noise Sources and Their Transfer Paths in Diesel Engines” SAE Paper 90014 34 41 1990