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Driving speeds in Europe for pollutant emissions estimation
Published May 31, 1999 by Technical University of Graz in Austria
The sensitivity of the pollutant emissions as regards the driving speed is demonstrated using emission functions currently available from the literature. An accurate and detailed knowledge of the actual driving speeds is then fundamental for emissions estimations and inventories. However, speed information is often limited and heterogeneous. Through a European synthesis, we examine the various means of investigations: surveys, vehicle instrumentation, traffic modelling, etc.
The available statistics provide a high number of reference values for passenger cars and duty vehicles by broad categories and highlight the influence of numerous factors on speed: time period, city size and area, trips origin and destination, vehicle types. Speed estimations and ranges are proposed for the driving in urban areas, or rural roads and on motorways.
The significant variations of the speed according to the time of the day, to the areas of a city, and large dispersion of the values for a given situation raise the question of using single average values and its influence on the emissions estimations.