This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A New Biomechanical Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Part 1-Methodology
Published September 23, 1999 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) occurs daily in virtually every human activity. Certainly, traffic accidents account for the vast majority of all such trauma. Concussions also occur in sports and recreational activities. American professional football provides a unique opportunity to study MTBI. That opportunity comes not from the particularly high frequency of occurrence (many sports are higher, e.g., boxing, ice hockey), but from the following facts:
The game is played on a precisely laid out grid.
The movement of players is recorded by video cameras from a multitude of directions and angles.
The subjects are all of comparable stature, age and physical condition and they are all equipped with virtually the same protective headgear.
Physicians at the sidelines are available immediately to diagnose and treat an injury.
This unique "laboratory'''' is being analyzed through a program involving four complimentary approaches:
1. Video recordings of MTBI events are analyzed to determine the kinematics, i.e., the relative speed, direction and impact sites on player''s heads.
2. In addition to clinical observations made by team physicians, concussed and uninjured players are subjected to neuropsychological assessment.
3. Reenactments of certain collisions are conducted with instrumented anthropometric test devices (ATDs).
4. Responses from the ATD heads are used to drive a mathematical model (FEM of the human brain that predicts intracranial distortion patterns.
It is intended that the results of the neuropsychological testing, as well as the medical evidence, be correlated to the FEM brain distortion patterns. The overall objective of the program is to develop new biomechanical criteria for MTBI. The new criterion functions will be based upon the measured ATD head translational and rotational accelerations and will be helpful in developing new standards for protective headgear. The present paper outlines the methodology and considers one example of incident reconstruction.
- Lawrence Thibault - Drexel University
- Gerry McGinnis - Drexel University
- Albert King - Wayne State Univ.
- King Yang - Wayne State Univ.
- Liying Zhang - Wayne State Univ.
- James McElhaney - Duke University
- James Newman - Biokinetics and Associates, Ltd.
- Marc Beusenberg - Biokinetics and Associates, Ltd.
- Edmund Fournier - Biokinetics and Associates, Ltd.
- Nicholas Shewchenko - Biokinetics and Associates, Ltd.
- Christopher Withnall - Biokinetics and Associates, Ltd.