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Best Available Technology for Emission Reduction of Small 4S-SI-Engines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 28, 1999 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Small off-road 4-stroke SI-engines have extraordinarily high pollutant emissions. These must be curtailed to comply with the new Swiss clean air act LRV 98. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigated the state of the technology. The aim was a cleaner agricultural walk behind mower with a 10kW 4-stroke SI-engine. Two engine designs were compared: side-valve and OHV.
A commercially available 3-way catalytic converter system substantially curtailed emissions: In the ISO 8178 G test-cycle-average, HC was minimized to 8% and CO to 5% of raw emissions. At part load points, the residual emission was < 1%. Simultaneously, fuel consumption improved 10%. Using a special gasoline (Swiss standard SN 181 163), the aromatic hydrocarbons were curtailed, e.g. Benzene < 1%, and fuel consumption further improved. Those results were confirmed in field tests. The engine is approved for retrofitting. Disquieting are the high emissions of ultrafine particulates: the catalytic converter only minimizes the volatile but not the solid particulates.
CitationMayer, A., Wyser, M., Matter, U., Czerwinski, J. et al., "Best Available Technology for Emission Reduction of Small 4S-SI-Engines," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3338, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-3338.
Data Sets - Support Documents
- (Pollutant emission and fuel consumption of the off-road sector) 49 1996
- Februar 1998 (Swiss clean air act, Status 2-Feb-1998 Paragraph 89: The emissions from motorized tools, e.g. chain saws and lawn mowers, must be curtailed using improved engine technology, suitable fuels and exhaust after-treatment, to the extent that the measures are technically and operationally feasible and affordable.)
- Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Exhaust Gas from Gasoline and Diesel Engines of Passenger Cars VDI-Richtlinie 3872 Verein Deutscher Ingenieure Düsseldorf 1989
- Particulate Traps for Retro-Fitting Construction Site Engines VERT: Final Measurements and Implementation Mayer A. et al. SAE 1999-01-0116
- Particle Emissions from Diesel Engines - Measurement of Combustion Exhaust Occupational Exposure Matter U. et al. 2 nd ETH Workshop “Nanoparticle Measurement” Zurich 7 Aug 1998
- (Quality guidelines for equipment gasoline Swiss standard SN 181 163, valid 1-1-98)
- Alcylate Petrol, Environmental Aspects of Volatile Hydrocarbon Emissions Östermark U. University of Göteborg Sweden 1996
- (Machine operators breath up with non-aromatic gas-oline) Wyser M.
- Using Advanced Emission Control Systems to Demonstrate LEV II ULEV on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles Webb C. et al. SAE 1999-01-0774
- (State of the technology for pollutant emissions from engines powering mobile machines and equipment Final report of the R&D proposal 105 06 011 of the German Environmental Ministry Berlin June 1997 )
- (innovative emission abatement technology to reach limits of today and tomorrow) 1999
- Industry proposal on a basic outline for the draft amendment to Directive 97/68/EC on Exhaust Emissions from SI Petrol Engines at or below 18kW EUROMOT Frankfurt 1998