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IVHS technologies applied to collision avoidance: Perspectives on six target crash types and countermeasures
Published April 14, 1993 by Intelligent Transportation Systems in United States
Event: Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society~Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 Annual Meeting
The NHTSA Office of Crash Avoidance Research (OCAR), in conjunction with the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC), has underway a multi-disciplinary program to: identify crash causal factors and applicable countermeasure concepts, model target crash scenarios and Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) technological interventions, provide preliminary device effectiveness estimates, and to identify countermeasure research data needs. To date, five major target crash types (representing, in the aggregate, more than half of all crashes) have been examined: Rear End, Backing, Single Vehicle Roadway Departure (SVRD), Lane Change/Merge, Signalized Intersection/Crossing Path.
Independent work is also underway to address the drowsy/fatigued driver problem, an example of a target crash defined by its cause as opposed to its configuration. This is the sixth crash type described in this paper.
This paper presents the results to date of the countermeasure assessments or ""front-end analyses."" The paper reviews ""lessons learned"" from these studies and portrays the research in the context of the overall NHTSA IVHS Plan and planned programs to develop IVHS countermeasure performance specifications. The heuristic nature of front-end analysis is emphasized; it is a process that attempts to obtain ""first order"" assessments of countermeasure feasibility and to generate questions to be addressed by further research. As more data become available, these first-order assessments can be refined.