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A finite element model of the pedestrian knee-joint in lateral impact
Published September 08, 1993 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
In car/pedestrian accident mathematical simulations, it is desirable to extend existing rigid body pedestrian model towards deformable finite element models. Thereby a wider range of front car structure/pedestrian interactions can be covered. Even though some injuries to pedestrian are due to contact with the ground, research concerning the severity of injuries due to the car contact, related to the bumper and the bonnet height and stiffness, and to the speed of the vehicle, are being carried out.
This paper presents a modelling of a human knee-joint in lateral impact for use in an explicit finite element code. The articulation between each condyle of the femur and the corresponding tuberosity of the tibia is mainly described. The bones entering into the formation of the knee-joint are the condyles of the femur above, the head of the tibia below. The bones are connected together by ligaments, some of which are placed on the exterior (for example; lateral and medial collateral...) of the joint, while others occupy its interior (for example; anterior and posterior crucial...).
This model will be impacted to estimate the severity of knee joint lesions and to predict the risk of knee injuries in car/pedestrian accidents. The effect of the impactor stiffness, velocity and height will be evaluated.
Experimental results from static tests and impact tests, to characterize the mechanical behavior of each part, like the ligaments or the bones, and the whole kinematics of the knee, serve as a basis for the validation of the model.