This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Loading and location of rib fractures in simulated 90-degrees car/car side impacts with post mortem human subjects
Published September 13, 1989 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
The paper reviews 58 simulated 90 degrees car/car side impacts with post mortem human subjects (PMHS). The collision velocity amounted 40, 45, 50 and 60 km/h, the situation of the belted near-side passenger was simulated. PMHS in the age range of 19 to 65 years were used. Accelerations (1-axial and 3- axial according to the a 12-accelerometer array) were measured at the thorax of the PMHS.
The mean values of the acceleration maxima of the locations of lower sternum, 8th rib impact side, 12th thoracic vertebra are higher than the corresponding values of the location of upper sternum, 4th rib impact side and at the 1st thoracic vertebra.
Only in 8 of the 58 conducted tests no rib fractures occurred. In the remaining 50 tests 1 up to 30 rib fractures were observed.
The number of rib fractures is on one hand depending of the age of the PMHS, on the other hand of the impact severity. The rib fractures predominantly concern the front- and rear region of the impacted body part and more rarely the far-side body region. Fragment fractures at the impacted body region and fractures at the far-side body region occurred in older PMHS.
The most predominantly occurring fractures were incomplete and without dislocation. Fractures with transfixing of the parietal pleura and the lung rarely happened.
In cases with numerous rib fractures mostly the 2nd to 9th rib of the impacted body region was concerned.
By including the film analysis, the injury mechanism is investigated, connections of the load severity and thorax injuries in dependence to the age of the PMHS are examined.