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Synthesis of abdominal injuries in frontal collisions with belt-wearing cadavers compared with injuries sustained by real-life accident victims. Problems of simulation with dummies and protection criteria
Published September 05, 1979 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
The wearing of the so-called three-point seat-belt has unquestionably brought about a decrease in both the frequency and the seriousness of the injuries sustained by automobile accident victims, when one compares the injuries incurred by the wearers of these belts with the injuries suffered by non-belt wearers in accidents of comparable impact violence.
However, the standard seat-belt still has room for considerable improvement. The injury-provoking mechanisms and the tolerances of the head and thorax are fairly well known, and this knowledge has enabled definition of protection criteria for frontal collisions simulated with dummies; the situation is different as concerns the abdominal viscera and the lumbar spine. However, injuries of this type are not inconsiderable in the light of the realities concerning accidents involving seat-belt-wearers.
In what follows, after evaluating the extent of submarining-induced injuries, it is proposed to compare those of the real-life victims and those of the cadavers used in frontal impact simulations. An attempt is then made to define as accurately as possible the conditions associated with dangerous submarining, from the viewpoint of a specific protection criterion.