Open Access

Dynamic Vehicle-in-the-Loop: A Novel Method for Testing Automated Driving Functions

Journal Article
12-05-04-0029
ISSN: 2574-0741, e-ISSN: 2574-075X
Published June 23, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Dynamic Vehicle-in-the-Loop: A Novel Method for Testing Automated
                    Driving Functions
Sector:
Citation: Drechsler, M., Sharma, V., Reway, F., Schütz, C. et al., "Dynamic Vehicle-in-the-Loop: A Novel Method for Testing Automated Driving Functions," SAE Intl. J CAV 5(4):2022, https://doi.org/10.4271/12-05-04-0029.
Language: English

Abstract:

In automated driving functions (ADF) testing, novel methods have been developed to allow the combination of hardware and simulation to ensure safety in usage even at an early stage of development. This article proposes an architecture to integrate an entire test vehicle—denominated Dynamic Vehicle-in-the-Loop (DynViL)—in a virtual environment. This approach enables the interaction of a real vehicle with virtual traffic participants. The vehicle is physically tested on an empty track, but connected to the CARLA simulator, in which virtual driving scenarios are created. The simulated environment is transmitted to the vehicle driving function which controls the real vehicle in reaction to the virtual objects perceived in simulation. Furthermore, the performance of the DynViL in different test scenarios is evaluated. The results show that the reproducibility of the tests with the DynViL is satisfactory. Furthermore, the results indicate that the deviation between simulation and DynViL variates according to the vehicle speed and the complexity of the scenario. Based on the performance of the DynViL in comparison to simulation, the DynViL can be implemented as a complementary test method to be added to the transition between hardware in the loop (HiL) and proving ground. In this test method, erratic or unexpected behavior generated by the driving function and controllers can be detected in the real vehicle dynamics in a risk-free manner.