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Cabin Thermal Management Analysis for SuperTruck II Next-Generation Hybrid Electric Truck Design
- Charles Okaeme - National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA ,
- Jason Lustbader - National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA ,
- Cory Sigler - National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA ,
- Iner Jorgensen - Kenworth Truck Company, USA ,
- Ben Grover - Kenworth Truck Company, USA ,
- Jordan Kiesser - Kenworth Truck Company, USA ,
- Matthew Moniot
ISSN: 1946-391X, e-ISSN: 1946-3928
Published September 09, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Okaeme, C., Lustbader, J., Sigler, C., Jorgensen, I. et al., "Cabin Thermal Management Analysis for SuperTruck II Next-Generation Hybrid Electric Truck Design," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 14(3):271-288, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/02-14-03-0022.
This article presents a multistage, coupled thermal management simulation approach, informed by physical testing where available, to aid design decisions for PACCAR’s SuperTruck II hybrid truck cabin concept. Focus areas include cabin insulation, battery sizing, and sleeper curtain position, as well as heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) component and accessory configurations, to maintain or improve thermal comfort while saving energy. The authors analyzed weather data and determined the national vehicle miles traveled weighted temperature and solar conditions for long-haul trucks. Example weather day profiles were selected to approximate the 5th and 95th percentile weighted conditions. A daylong drive cycle was developed to impose appropriate external wind conditions during rest and driving periods. Using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s vehicle HVAC modeling and simulation tool VTCab, HVAC load design trade-off studies for the new truck geometry concept were completed. Parameters analyzed included effects of paint color, insulation, glass transmissivity, and curtain location. Simulation results helped with early design material selections for efficient cabin climate control. A detailed three-dimensional computer-aided engineering (CAE), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), radiation, and human physiology co-simulation, referred to in this article as CAE Thermal-CFD, was used to evaluate thermal comfort and energy impacts of diffuser configurations and air supply settings in driving and hoteling modes. Analysis revealed that it is more difficult to heat the cabin in hoteling mode during the winter than to cool the space in the summer. This seasonal load profile drives the requirement of additional energy storage for heating comfort. To determine the battery capacity requirement, multiday HVAC operation drive cycle simulations were then completed, showing that a 15-kWh battery would be required for HVAC operation during hoteling. Results helped reduce cabin thermal loads, determine component sizing requirements, and improve occupant comfort to save fuel and contribute to the economic viability of the hybrid system.