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Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9%.
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Aerodynamic analysis of commercial vehicle using active vortex generators concept

ARAI-Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI ACADEMY, PUNE-Saurabh Jayant kulkarni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2409
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Any physical body being propelled through the air has drag associated with it. Drag will be created on the surface of the vehicle due to the flow separation at the rear end. In aerodynamics the flow separation can often result in increased drag particularly pressure drag, to delay the flow separation, the vortex generators are used on the roof end of the vehicle just before the point of flow separation. The objective of this project is to perform aerodynamic analysis of commercial vehicle using active vortex generators concept. First, the aerodynamic analysis of a baseline commercial vehicle model is performed and same is validated with the scaled model by using a wind tunnel test. Further analysis has been done by using active vortex generators concept with variation of angle of attacks for vehicle speed of 50, 70, 90 kmph. Also, analysis has been carried out for six different yaw angles. The simulation is carried out with the use of ANSYS Fluent. The simulation result shows the significant drag coefficient reduction of the commercial vehicle with…
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Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

ARAI Academy-Raghav Tandon
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2408
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent. The result shows a significant drag reduction of 12.23% using active grill shutters and air dams.
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Study on effect of HVAC Air Flow Distribution on Windows Fogging

Hyundai Motor India Engineering-Santhosha Vigneshwaran, Eeshan Geel, G Sundrasekaran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2414
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Windshield & Windows fogging up in cars has long been a topic of interest & concern. Lot of research has already been put into Front/Rear windshield fogging up issue and, Defrosters, Heated Windshields have been designed to remove the fog effectively. However, Windows Fogging up is still one of the major concerns faced while driving, as it obscures the drivers' field of vision and raises safety concerns. Windows fogging up is a phenomenon in which Moisture is condensed on the glass of the window. It is classified into two categories - Inside Fogging and Outside Fogging. When Ambient temperature is lower than the cabin temperature, the moisture is condensed on the inside surface of the glass. In this case the moisture is added inside the cabin by the occupants when they exhale air. Similarly when the Cabin temperature is lower than the ambient temperature, the moisture from atmosphere is condensed on the outer surface of the glass. A Survey with 500 Indian Customers has been conducted to understand the occurrence of Windows fog up issue…
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CFD Simulation on Turbulent Forced Convection of Copper Oxide (CuO) -Water Nanofluids in a Horizontal Circular Pipe

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Nitin Dewangan, Nitin Kattula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0131
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The present study provides a detailed investigation on simulation of Copper oxide nanofluids in a simple horizontal circular pipe considering turbulent forced convection, with a constant heat flux boundary condition. The simulation is carried out using three different models available in fluent viz. Newtonian single phase model, Eulerian-mixture and Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase models. The Reynold number of the flow is varied along with volume concentration of nanoparticles varying form low to high. Nanofluids rheology is studied by considering standard k-ε two equation turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment considering appropriate wall y+ values. The effective temperature dependent thermo-physical properties for nanofluids were seized from the literatures. The results from the simulation clearly showed an increase in the heat transfer characteristics with the addition of nanoparticles compared to that of base fluid alone. Eulerian-Mixture model predicted the Nusselt number near to that of the experimental results from literature.
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Aeroacoustic Prediction for Effectiveness of Vortex Suppression Methods for Bluff Bodies at Various Reynolds Numbers

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sanhita Padia, Dewanshu Deep, Senthilkumar Sundararaj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0118
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Noise of almost every form is considered undesirable and hence its reduction is an important area of study. Aerodynamically generated noise due to vortex shedding in the wake of bluff bodies is a major source of such undesirable noise in applications involving overhead wires, poles, automotive components and aircraft landing gears. Vortex suppression methods are employed in these cases to reduce the noise generated by suppressing the pressure fluctuations arising near the bluff body surface. For the present study, flow past different bluff bodies is simulated using commercial CFD software, ANSYS FLUENT, with and without involving suppression methods. The calculations for flow field are performed by solving the two-dimensional governing equations for unsteady isothermal incompressible viscous flow. Turbulence modelling is performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid model. Simulations for far-field noise are carried out using Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings model and different aeroacoustic parameters like overall sound pressure level and sound pressure level are computed for different receiver locations. The effectiveness of different suppression methods is tested at different Reynolds numbers and their…
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Numerical Investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for Vehicle Coating

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Mohammad Reza Pendar, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1856
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. Instead of an experimental approach [Stevenin et al., 2015, Fluids Eng., 137 (11)], here an algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE). The spin of the bell forced the paint to fall off from the bell edge into the high-velocity airflow. By increasing…
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Effects of the Domain Zonal Decomposition on the Hybrid URANS/LES Modeling of the TCC-III Motored Engine Flow

Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia-Alessandro D'Adamo, Federico Rulli, Stefano Fontanesi
University of Rome Tor Vergata-Vesselin Krastev
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid URANS/LES turbulence modeling is rapidly emerging as a valuable complement to standard LES for full-engine multi-cycle simulation. Among the available approaches, zonal hybrids are potentially attractive due to the possibility of clearly identify URANS and LES zones, eventually introducing further zone types with dynamically switching behavior. The present work aims at evaluating the impact of different zonal configurations on the simulated flow statistics using the well-assessed TCC-III experimental engine setup. More specifically, different methods (URANS, LES or seamless DES) are applied inside the cylinder volume, as well as into the intake/exhaust ports and plenums. For each of the five tested configurations, in-cylinder flow features are compared against the reference TCC-III experimental measurements, in terms of velocity field statistics and quality indices. In addition, a detailed analysis using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is carried out to quantitatively compare the results from experiments and simulation sets. The study outcomes are used as a starting point for discussing the applicability of zonal hybrid turbulence modeling to realistic engine geometries, critically analyze the model assumptions (e.g. the domain…
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Flow Analysis between Two Bluff Bodies in a Close Distance Platooning Configuration

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands-Frank van Tilborg, Gandert Van Raemdonck, Andrea Sciacchitano, Damiano Casalino
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0015
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
This article analyses the flow field between two 1/8-scale Generalized European Transport System (GETS) models which are placed in a two-vehicle platoon at close distances. Numerical simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method together with a wind tunnel experiment (open jet facility, OJF) were executed. Next to balance measurements, coaxial volumetric velocimetry (CVV) measurements were performed to obtain information about the flow field. Three intervehicle distances, 0.10, 0.45 and 0.91 times the vehicle length, were tested for various platoon configurations where the vehicles in the platoon varied in terms of front-edge radius and the addition of tails. At the smallest intervehicle distance, the greatest reductions in drag were found for both the leading and trailing vehicles. The flow in the gap between the two vehicles follows an S-shaped path with small variations between the configurations. For the second distance, the leading model still experiences a decrease in drag however smaller compared to the closest distance. For the trailing model either a drag increase or decrease is found depending on its front-edge radius. The addition of a…
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Test Cell Analytical Thrust Correction

EG-1E Gas Turbine Test Facilities and Equipment
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5436A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a method to correct engine thrust, measured in an indoor test cell, for the aerodynamic effects caused by the secondary airflow induced in the test cell by the engine operating in an enclosed environment in close proximity to an exhaust duct. While it is not recommended to be used to replace test cell correlation, it does provide a means to verify an existing thrust correlation factor.
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