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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925ºC (1650-1700ºF). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790ºC (1400-1450ºF). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
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Analysis of High Cycle Fatigue In Welded Joints Of Profiles With Thin Walls Used In Bus Structures Subjected To Combined Loads Through Comparative Analysis

Marcopolo SA-Eng. Felipe Biondo
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)-Dr. Eng. Afonso Reguly, Dr. Eng. Marcelo Favaro Borges
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0074
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Projects of bus body structures must be developed taking into consideration the dynamic loads that this type of vehicle is subjected to. Experimental and numerical methods can be used to evaluate fatigue life in order to determine the durability of these vehicles. Bus structures are basically constructed using welded thin walled profiles that are often oversized due to the lack of knowledge of several product characteristics such as the conditions of the pavements, deficiency of characterization of welded joints and the quality of the materials used. Allied to this the Brazilian road system counts on several types of roads, presenting roads in good conditions of conservation until roads in precarious conditions with extremely high severity. In addition, vehicle safety standards have been intensifying their requirements. With that in mind, bus body manufacturers are investing in research to produce more durable, efficient and safe buses, expanding the search through engineering tools to develop better and more competitive products. The aim of this work was to analyze high cycle fatigue life of welded joints of thin-walled profiles…
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GMAW Process Parameter Optimization to Reduce Porosity Defect in a Longitudinal Seam Welding of Pressure Vessels

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India-A. Kuppusamy, K. Rameshkumar, A. Sumesh
ELGI Equipment Limited, India-S. Premkumar
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0005
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Pressure vessels are critical equipment used in industries for storing liquids or gases at a pressure significantly different from ambient conditions. Porosity is one of the major weld defects in pressure vessels that leads to failure during inspection and as well as during its service. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process is widely used in industries to fabricate pressure vessels using carbon steel “IS 2062 E250BR” material for storing compressed air. The main objective of this article is to reduce the porosity defect in the longitudinal seam (LS) welding of the pressure vessels. Detailed analysis is carried out to identify the parameters which are influencing the porosity defect. Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approaches are used to find the optimum value of the weld parameters which produce weld without porosity or any major defects in the pressure vessel. An experimental setup has been established and welding experiments have been conducted under a controlled environment. Experiments were conducted without any external disturbances ensuring clean weld surface and filler wire without any moisture,…
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Steel, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Welding Wire 15Cr - 25.5Ni - 1.3Mo - 2.2Ti - 0.006B - 0.30V

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5804H
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
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Steel, Corrosion and Heat Resistant, Welding Wire 9.0Mn - 20Cr - 6.2Ni - 0.20N

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5818C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
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Nickel-Iron Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Welding Wire 12.5Cr - 42.5Ni - 6.0Mo - 2.7Ti - 0.015B - 35Fe

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5830C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel-iron alloy in the form of welding wire.
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Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Bars, Forgings, and Rings 60Ni - 22Cr - 2.0Mo - 14W - 0.35Al - 0.03La Solution Heat Treated

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5891C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or heading.
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Titanium Alloy Bars, Forgings, and Rings 6Al - 4V Extra Low Interstitial (ELI) Duplex Annealed, Fracture Toughness

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4931G
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) and under in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides, forgings and flash welded rings 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) and under in thickness, and stock for forging and stock for flash welded rings of any size.
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Titanium Alloy Welding Wire 5Al - 2.5Sn

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4953H
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of welding wire.
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Undercooled Metal Technology for Flexible Electronics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35427
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Undercooled metal technology was developed that features liquid metal (in this case, Field's metal, an alloy of bismuth, indium, and tin) trapped below its melting point in polished, oxide shells, creating particles about 10-millionths of a meter across. When the shells are broken — with mechanical pressure or chemical dissolving — the metal inside flows and solidifies, creating a heat-free weld or, in this case, printing conductive, metallic lines and traces on all kinds of materials, from a concrete wall to a leaf.