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Welded and Cold Drawn, 304/304L Stainless Steel Tubing

Metallic Tubing Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3128_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard covers welded and drawn to size stainless steel pressure tubing intended for use as hydraulic lines and in other applications requiring corrosion resistance.

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Design Analysis and Simulations of Components of an All-Terrain Vehicle

BITS Pilani-Pranjal Shukla, Konark Joshi, Utkarsh Rastogi, Ajith Reddy Moola
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
A single seater All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is conceptualized in this paper which covers the extent of designing and simulations ranging from static structural, fatigue analysis, explicit dynamics etc. Solidworks and Ansys Workbench have been used as the tools for the simulation. Our aim was to design and fabricate a vehicle which is light weight (<200Kgs), easily maneuverable in harsh driving conditions and also scores high in affordability and maintenance.This report also contains the design consideration of the chassis, steering, suspension, braking, powertrain. Simulation results of components like hubs, knuckles, A-Arms, chassis are done with special focus on modelling based on real time forces and behaviors. MATLAB Simulink models are used and explained for the suspension model.The vehicle was fabricated in-house using various fabrication methods of TIG Welding, Vertical CNC machines etc. The strength tests for the specimens of welding were checked for the safety of the chassis. The vehicle was tested on tracks for braking, steering and acceleration and further modifications were made in the design to incorporate the iterations.
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Investigation of Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy X by Key-Hole Plasma Arc Welding Process

Vellore Institute of Technology-Mathiyazhagan Sathishkumar, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Manoharan Manikandan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research work describes the effect of microsegregation, microstructure and tensile strength of the Hastelloy X weldment produced by keyhole plasma arc welding (K-PAW). Weld joint was obtained in a single pass without the addition of filler wire. The significant results obtained in this research work are (i) fine equiaxed dendrite was detected in the weld centre due to lesser heat input (HI) along with the faster solidification attained in K-PAW (ii) The existence of secondary precipitates in the interdendritic boundary was identified by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis (iii) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) revealed the Cr and Mo microsegregation in interdendritic boundary of the weld zone (iv) X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the Mo-rich P phase and Cr-rich M23C6 phase. The observed tensile strength of weldment is 6.14 % inferior to base metal. The development of secondary precipitates in the weld zone affected the tensile properties of the weld joint.
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Corrosion Characteristics on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA2014/AA6061 Alloy for Automobile Application

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology-Sadhasivam Deepankumar, Anbalagan Ramakrishnan, Dinesh Dhanabalan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a widely used solid state welding process in which its heats metal to the below recrystallization temperature due to frictional force. FSW mostly avoids welding defects like hot cracking and porosity which are mainly occur in conventional welding techniques. In this process the combination of frictional force and the mechanical work provide heating the base metal to get defect free weld joints. Aluminium Alloys 2014 and 6061 are generally used in a wide range of automobile applications like Engine valves and tie rod, shipbuilding, and aerospace due to their high corrosion resistance, lightweight, and good mechanical properties. In the present work, aluminium alloys of AA6061 and AA2014 were effectively welded by friction stir welding technique. The tool rotational speed, travel speed, and tool profile are the important parameters in FSW process. High Speed Steel (HSS) tool with Hexagonal profile is used for this joining. The tool rotational speed is varied form 700, 1000 and 1400 rpm and the travel speed is varied from 25, 30 and 50 mm/min. From the…
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Mechanical and Metallurgical Analysis of HSLA Steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Different Shielding Gases

CSI College of Engineering-Dhanraj Gurusamy, Prashanth Murthy, Senthilkumar Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar Nanjappan
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gases in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. DMR 249A [HSLA] plates were welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140 degree Celsius and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. A detailed study has been carried out to analyze the elements using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The properties of the high speed low alloy steel carried out reveals a better mechanical properties suitable in naval applications.
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Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321 by Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Sudarshan Rikka, Devaiah Malkapuram
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process and by employing two different types of filler rods SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3, Mechanical properties such as Ultimate Tensile Strength, Young’s Modulus ae found as per ASTM testing standards, Percentage of Elongation also found to know the joint efficiency and Microhardness survey across the weld joint to estimate the hardness variations at different locations such as Weld zone of the metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), and Base metal.
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Metallurgical and Wear Behaviour of Stellite 6 Reinforced Stainless Steel 316 Joints by Nd-YAG Laser Welding Process

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Balasrinivasan Murugan, Ravikumar Natarajan
Renault & Nissan-Abdur Rahman Kalam
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Laser welding process is a most effective and predominant method for joining of steel alloys when compared with other welding processes in practice due to their precise control of laser source across the bonding zone where it is crucial to control in other joining processes. In common the austenitic steels differ from ferritic based on two factors, thermal conductivity and expansion. Here, the selected Nd-YAG laser setup for joining of similar base material stainless steel 316 which is reinforced with and without stellite 6 powders. The experimental investigations (metallurgical survey and wear characteristics) were performed on all the samples. The powders were reinforced in the material directly by performing a drill across the bond line instead of a normal coating process which is in practice, later the powders were stuffed through the holes. Totally four samples were processed by varying the process parameters such as laser power (W), laser frequency (Hz) and keeping the time (s), feeding rate (mm/s) as constant. During the joining process the powders will get solidified with the molten steel alloy.…
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Advances in Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Alloys

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Mohammed Haareeskhan Niyaz, Pradeep Krishna Ranganathan, Afnan Zaid Moolai, Mohamed Ashfaq Ahmed Abdulla Burhanudeen, Mohan Raj Ramu
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
As a fusion welding process, Laser welding has proven to be the most promising method for joining of different materials whether it can be either a similar or dissimilar material category. However, few complications still remain unanswered in joining of materials by laser process after successful implementation of laser’s by industries and also the commercial users in previous year’s such as workpiece preparation, fixture issues, atmospheric conditions, nozzle focus on the material, etc., This article will give an elaborate survey on joining of stainless steel alloys, though there are many factors to be considered here concentration is on the metallurgical behaviour and tensile properties of weldments joined by laser welding technique, because the main criteria for a weldment is to have a coarse grain boundary distribution which may be distorted due to high heat generation during a joining process and to possess good tensile strength in order to withstand the impacts given on the weldment when it is being practically deployed in usage. The material behavior of weldment is primarily based on the process parameters…
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Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

Hawassa University-Sivan Rajkumar
KPR Institute of Engg and Technology-Balasubramanian Arulmurugan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
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Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Corrosion Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6

Assistant Professor-Deepankumar S
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a quite new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and adaptable. In particular, it can be used to join high- strength Aluminium alloys and other metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction Stir Welding heats metal to the temperature below re crystallization. FSW avoids welding defects like porosity and hot cracking which are frequently in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s very low re- crystallization temperature and higher heat dissipating nature. This process combining deformation heating and mechanical work to obtain high defect free joints. Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is generally used in various industrial applications such as automobile, ship building and aerospace due to their light weight, good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. In the present study, aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was successfully made by friction stir welding technique. The Corrosion, micro structure analysis and mechanical behavior of the welded joints were investigated at different welding parameters.
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