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MIMO Control of a Turbogenerator for Energy Recovery

Loughborough Univ.-Simon Petrovich, Kambiz Ebrahimi, Nikolaos Kalantzis, Antonios Pezouvanis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0261
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Market trends for increased engine power and more electrical energy on the powergrid (3kW+), along University of Loughborough for fuel consumption improvements and emissions reduction, are driving requirements for component electrification, including turbochargers. GTDI engines waste significant exhaust enthalpy; even at moderate loads the WG (Wastegate) starts to open to regulate the turbine power. This action is required to reduce EBP (Exhaust Back Pressure). Another factor is catalyst protection, where the emissions device is placed downstream turbine. Lambda enrichment or overfuelling is used to perform this. However, the turbine has a temperature drop across it when used for energy recovery. Since catalyst performance is critical for emissions, the only reasonable location for an additional device is downstream of it. This is a challenge for any additional energy recovery, but a smaller turbine is a design requirement, optimised to operate at lower pressure ratios. A WAVE model of the 2.0L GTDI engine was adapted to include a TG (Turbogenerator) and TBV (Turbine Bypass Valve) with the TG in a mechanical turbocompounding configuration, calibrated with steady state…
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Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

FKFS-Cornelius Wagner, Michael Grill, Mahir-Tim Keskin
FKFS / University of Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of DMC and MeFo mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D-Simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ (a mixture of DMC and MeFo mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered. This is mainly due to the higher knock resistance and…
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Validation of a Theoretical Model for the Correction of Heat Transfer Effects in Turbocharger Testing through a Quasi-3D Model

Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Matteo Tamborski, Augusto Della Torre
Universita Degli Studi di Genova-Silvia Marelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1010
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the last few years, the effect of diabatic test conditions on compressor performance maps has been widely investigated leading some Authors to propose different correction models. The accuracy of turbocharger performance map constitute the basis for the tuning and validation of a numerical 1D procedure, usually adopted for the engine-turbocharger matching. Actually, it is common practice in automotive applications to use simulation codes, which require as an input the value of efficiency. Therefore, the ability to correct the measured performance maps taking into account internal heat transfer would allow the implementation of commercial simulation codes used for engine-turbocharger matching calculations. The practical purpose of an adiabatic test program is to obtain an accurate measurement of the work transfer, and of the real efficiency of compressor and turbine (unaffected by internal and external heat transfer rates). In fact, the heat flow leads to an apparent increase of the power absorption and an apparent drop in efficiency of the compressor. However, lack of understanding of the heat transfer effects as well as the high costs associated…
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On-Engine Performance Evaluation of New-Concept Turbocharger Compressor Housing Design

Imperial College London-Ricardo F. Martinez-Botas
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Takao Yokoyama, Yutaka Fujita, Motoki Ebisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1012
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Following the market demands in finding the niche balance between engine performance and legislation requirement, a new compressor scroll has been designed for small to medium size passenger cars. The design adopts a slight deviation from the conventional method, thus resulting in broader surge margin and better efficiency at off-design region. This paper presents the design of the new compressor scroll and its performance validation. The new compressor scroll is coupled to a standard wheel and tested on the cold gas stand followed by the on-engine testing. The testing program focused on back-to-back comparison with the standard compressor scroll, as well as identifying on-engine operational regime with better brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and transient performance. A specially instrumented 1.6L gasoline engine was used for this study. The engine control unit configurations are kept constant for both the compressor testing. The intake and exhaust manifold has been customized to fit the turbochargers and kept identical between the standard and new compressor scroll installations. The turbocharger with new compressor scroll design is found to work at…
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Evaluation of Fast Warm-Up Strategies for a Light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition(GCI) Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Mark Sellnau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0317
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations in automotive applications are driving advancements in after-treatment technology and emissions control strategies. Fast warm-up of the after-treatment system during the engine cold-start is essential to meet future emissions targets. In this study, a range of strategies were evaluated on a 2.2L, four cylinder, light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine with geometric compression ratio 17. The GCI engine has a single stage turbocharger and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with EGR cooler bypass. . For cold-start assist, the engine is equipped with a 2.5kW electric heater. The aftertreatment system is comprised of an oxidation catalyst, followed by a particulate filter and an SCR catalyst. A detailed GT-Power model of the GCI engine system was developed for evaluations. In the first work phase, the individual and combined benefit of the engine-based strategies, such as flare speed, load, retarded CA50, intake air heater and backpressure valve throttling were evaluated for ambient cold-start. The cumulative benefit of the strategies produced estimated exhaust temperature and exhaust enthalpy of 470 degree C and 10 kW, respectively…
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Calibration procedure for measurement data-based fast running model for Hardware-in-the-Loop powertrain systems

Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Jelena Andric
Gamma Technologies LLC-Daniel Schimmel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0254
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The requirements set for the next-generation powertrain systems (e.g. performance and emissions) are becoming increasingly stringent with ever-shortening time-to-markets at reduced costs. To remain competitive automotive companies are progressively relying on model-driven development and virtual testing. Virtual test benches, such as Hardware-in the-Loop simulators, are powerful tools to reduce the amount of physical testing and speed up engine software calibration process. The introduction of these technologies places new, often conflicting demands (such as higher predictability, faster simulation speed, and reduced calibration effort ) upon simulation models used at Hardware-in-the-Loop test benches. The new models are also expected to offer compliance to industry standards, performance and usability to further increase the usage of virtual tests in powertrain development. The present work describes a novel verification process for creating a fast running model for a heavy-duty diesel engine using FRM-d Builder in GT-SUITE simulation software. The approach uniquely applies the combination physical modelling and parameter estimation techniques, while relying solely on test cell measurements without data maps from the manufactures (e.g. for turbine and compressor). The procedure…
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Optimization of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Volute Turbine under Pulsating Engine Boundary Conditions

Daimler AG-Torsten Palenschat, Peter Wahl, Galin Nakov, Kai Hoffmann
Imperial College London-Ricardo Martinez-Botas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0914
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Future CO2 emission legislations require the internal combustion engine to become more efficient than ever. Of great importance is the boosting system enabling down-sizing and down-speeding. However, the thermodynamic coupling of a reciprocating internal combustion engine and a turbocharger poses a great challenge to the turbine as pulsating admission conditions are imposed onto the turbocharger turbine. This paper presents a novel approach to turbocharger turbine development developed at Daimler Truck AG, and outlines this process using the example of an asymmetric twin scroll turbocharger applied to a heavy duty truck engine application. In a first step relevant operating points are defined taking into account fuel consumption on reference routes for the target application. These operation points are transferred into transient boundary conditions imposed on the turbine. These pulsating admission conditions to the turbocharger turbine are analyzed and subsequently discretized using the method of quasi-steadiness to avoid numerically very expensive unsteady CFD simulations. Following, an automated in-house developed workflow based on a parametrized model of the entire turbine stage is introduced and described. The parametrization is…
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Controlling strategy for the performance and NOx emissions of the hydrogen internal combustion engines with a turbocharger

Beijing Institute of Technology-Qinghe Luo
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Chia-Fon Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0256
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen fuel is a future energy to solve energy crisis and environmental pollution. Hydrogen internal combustion engines can combine the advantage of hydrogen without pollution and the basic structure of the traditional engines. However, the power of the port fuel injection hydrogen engines is smaller than the same volume gasoline engine because the hydrogen will occupy the volume of the cylinder and reduce the air mass flow. The turbocharger can increase the power of hydrogen engines but also increase the NOx emission. Hence, a comprehensive controlling strategy to solve the contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission is important to improve the performance of hydrogen engines. This paper show the controlling strategy for a four-stroke, 2.3L hydrogen engine with a turbocharger. The controlling strategy divides the operating conditions of the hydrogen engine into six parts according to the engine speeds and loads. Solving the main contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission at different operating condition is the key of the controlling strategy. This paper also show the power, BTE and NOx emission…
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Purge Pump Rotor Dynamics subjected to Ball Bearing Inner and Outer Race Wear Defects

General Motors LLC-Isaac Du, Sandeep Shrivastava, Ankur Sinha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0403
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The purge pump is used to pull evaporative gases from canister and send to engine for combustion in Turbocharger engines. The purge pump with impeller at one end and electric motor at the other end is supported by the ball bearing assembly. A bearing kinematic model to predict forcing function due to defect in ball bearing arrangement coupled with bearing dynamic model of rotor because of rotating component is proposed in this paper to get accumulated effect on transmitted force to the purge pump casing. Rotor dynamic of purge pump rotor components only produces certain order forcing responses which can be simulated into the multibody software environment knowing the ball bearing geometry parameters hence providing stiffness parameter for rotor system. Wear defects in the ball bearings, such as defects in the inner and outer races, cage, and balls generate different noise types that have asynchronous high-frequency orders and as well as sidebands frequencies due to frequency modulations. These wear noise frequencies are called the bearing defect-related frequencies. A defect in the ball bearing system tends…
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Elucidation of the Sulfide Corrosion Mechanism in Piston Pin Bushings

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryuta Motani, Kazuki Maeyama, Kenta Yoshii, Shinji Oshida, Hiroki Masuda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Tatsuya Okayama, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1079
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, downsizing is realizing lighter and more compact engines, but at the same time, the use of turbochargers and other supercharging devices in order to supplement power and torque is increasing their power density, resulting in higher thermal and mechanical loads. In such environment, corrosion of the copper alloy bushes (piston pin bushes) that are press-fitted into the small ends of the conrods is becoming an issue. It is known that automotive bearing materials such as bushes suffer sulfidation corrosion as a result of reacting with an extreme-pressure additive (Zn-DTP) in the lubricating oil, but the reaction paths remain unclear. The research discussed in this paper therefore tried to elucidate the reaction paths in the reaction between Zn-DTP and copper in actual vehicle environments. Unit corrosion tests were conducted in order to identify the effect of the state of degradation of the oil and its temperature and copper content on corrosion. The results of these tests suggested that the direct reaction between copper and Zn-DTP was not the main factor in the corrosion under study,…