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Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
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Rapid Prototyping and Implementation of traction motor drive for E- Mobility

Altair Engineering India Pvt Ltd.-Srikanth R, Sreeram Mohan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2472
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective / Question: Is it possible to extend the envelope of simulation driven design and its advantages to development of complex dynamic systems viz. traction motor drives? The objective that then follows is how to enable OEM/Tier-1s to reduce wastes in the process of traction motor controller design, development, optimization and implementation. Motor control design to validation process is time consuming and tricky! Additionally, the requirement of software knowledge to write code to implement drive engineer's control ideas. The challenges here are - to name a few - algorithm for real time, addressing memory constraints, debugging, comprehending mathematical overflows, portability & BOM cost. These introduces wastes in parameters like time, cost, performance, efficiency and reliability. Methodology: Developing a new traction motor controller for E Mobility takes 18 - 24 months typically. 2 distinct activities take place in a loop. One is the motor drive engineer who has good understanding of the motor, requirement demands on the motor & digital control of the motor and the second is the software engineer who has a good understanding…
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Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

ARAI Academy-Manoj Desai
Automotive Research Association of India-Monishram Venkataram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2478
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter. The output torque is primarily estimated from phase currents and forms as the feedback to alter the input to the drives. In closed loop control, the electric power train is run with either speed control or…
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Design Analysis and 3D Printing of Non-Pneumatic Tyre

VNR VJIET-Prashanth Kannan, Amjad Shaik, Yogesh Kumar, Naga Sumanth Bareddy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The major concern when implementing maneuvers are acceleration, braking and steering for the safety control which ultimately depends on the road and tyre surface friction. To withstand the vertical loads and maintain good traction with contact surface pneumatic tyres with high volume of pressurized air are required. To improve the comfort, handling and grip with low unsprung mass, non-pneumatic tyres are needed which are not reinforced with air pressure. The decreased effect of rolling resistance, added cushioning effect and better cellular shear band design increased the performance level than pneumatic tyres. Here, air is replaced by poly-composite spokes that eliminates the possibility of tyre going flat. This paper mainly discusses the environmental impact and stability issues of conventional pneumatic tyres and also focuses on the various possible design and components of an airless tyre. This paper also presents the modelling and analysis of non-pneumatic tyre followed by 3D printed sealed model using ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane). Honeycomb structured cellular shear band made of polyurethane are tested with different shear band angles…
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Comparison of Harmonics in Two Phase Induction Machine with Various Winding Approaches for Traction

Vellore Institute Of Technology Chennai-Sathyanarayanan Nandagopal, Lenin Natesan Chokkalingam
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The impact of winding topologies on time harmonics and space harmonics in a hub type induction motor (HTIM) for electric vehicle (EV) traction is the premise of this study. Electrical machines such as permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM), switched reluctance motor (SRM) and induction motor (IM) are players under research for traction. Due to the ruggedness and absence of permanent magnet, IM is a strong contender to PMBLDCM and SRM. In an IM, ideally current and air-gap flux are sinusoidal. Current follows the supply frequency and air-gap flux follows the number of poles. Due to the distribution of coils in the windings, the current and the air-gap flux are greatly influenced in terms of harmonics. The presence of the harmonics in these sinusoids disrupt the performance of the machine by increased electrical and acoustic noise, and temperature as well. In this paper, a two phase HTIM is designed with various winding topologies. Finite element analysis is implemented to study the time harmonics present in current and space harmonics of air gap flux. Finally, the…
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Performance Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle with Multiple Electric Machines for Increased Overall Drive Train Efficiency

University of Ljubljana-Mario Vukotić, Damijan Miljavec
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Laura Tribioli, Daniele Chiappini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Proposed solutions for electric vehicles range from the simple single-motor drive coupled to one axle through a mechanical differential, to more complex solutions, such as four in-wheel motors, which ask for electronic torque vectoring. Main reasons for having more than one electric machine are: reduction of the rated power of each motor, which most likely leads to simplification and cost reduction of all the electric drive components; increased reliability of the overall traction system, enhancing fault tolerance ability; increase of the degrees of freedom which allows for control strategy optimization and efficiency improvement. In particular, electrical machines efficiency generally peaks at around 75% of load and this usually leads to machine downsizing to avoid operation in low efficiency regions. The same output performance can be achieved by using two or more electrical machines, rather than only one, of smaller size and running them at unequal load - one of the machines at higher load and the other(s) at lower load.In this paper, the performance of an electric vehicle with multiple electric machines is analyzed to…
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Electrifying Long-Haul Freight - Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Kansas, USA-Christopher Depcik, Anmesh Gaire, Jamee Gray, Zachary Hall, Anjana Maharjan, Darren Pinto, Arno Prinsloo
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0017
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability. Lastly, a combination of different lightweight vehicle components manufactured from aluminum and magnesium alloys, carbon fiber composites, titanium, and high-strength steel presents a substantial reduction in overall vehicle weight. Overall, a comparison of a potential EHDTT with a standard Class-8 heavy-duty tractor-trailer (HDTT) reveals a possible reduction in the aerodynamic…
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Step & Repeat: Reduce Derivative Aircraft Development Risk with Design Reuse

Mentor-Muhammad Askar
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The complex and risky process of designing derivative aircraft, especially when it comes to electrical systems, can be a daunting task at best. There are a number of design strategies that can be employed to mitigate risk and increase the overall efficiency. Quite simply, the current methods of manual processes, design and integration approaches that were optimized from mechanical approaches, are no match for today’s complexities.One method gaining significant traction is to employ a central database serving global interface definitions for the entire design process. Automation through generative design minimizes manual intervention and repetitive work. Furthermore, detecting changes through design rule checks allows system engineers to verify their designs, capturing both inadvertent and planned changes. The ability to instantly update the design content from the new definition streamlines the change management process.Employing these technologies in a digital, connected thread, ensures that intelligent information is leveraged at every step along the way from aircraft conception, realization, and finally to utilization - thereby minimizing risk and maximizing efficiency.
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Modelling and Control of a Novel Clutchless Multiple-Speed Transmission for Electric Vehicles

Mecaprom SRL-Mauro Grandone, Alberto Lega, Michele Pennese
University of Salerno-Ludovica Malafronte, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0063
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Conventional electric vehicles adopt either single-speed transmissions or direct drive architecture in order to reduce cost, losses and mass. However, the integration of optimized multiple-speed transmissions is considered as a feasible method to enhance EVs performances, (i.e. top speed, acceleration and grade climbing), improving powertrain efficiency, saving battery energy and reducing customer costs. Perfectly in line with these objectives, this paper presents a patented fully integrated electric traction system, as scalable solution for electrifying light duty passenger and commercial vehicles (1.5-4.2 tons), with a focus on minibuses (<20 seats). The adoption of high-speed motor coupled to multiple-speed transmission offers the possibility of a relevant efficiency improvement, a 50% volume reduction with respect to a traditional transmission, superior output torque and power density.The proposed clutchless four-speed transmission is specifically conceived and designed to have the good matching with the traction electric motor. Indeed, clutches and synchronizers are not required thanks to the small inertia of the traction motor and its fast regulation in both torque and speed mode (torque modulation process). Therefore, an advanced shifting control…
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System Interactions Affecting NVH Performance of an Electric Vehicle Drivetrain

Romax Technology, Ltd.-Melanie Michon, Robert Holehouse, Annabel Shahaj, Hisham Jafarali, Venkatakrishna Janakiraman
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present an integrated approach to system NVH analysis, which gives an insight into the system response in an EV driveline due to electrical and mechanical excitations; namely rotor mechanical imbalance, electrical machine torque ripple, and stator radial force shapes.The paper will address the fact that, as part of a practical design exercise, different subsystems and components may achieve design maturity at different times. It is therefore important to understand to what extent various drivetrain components may be considered in isolation, and at what point it becomes necessary to consider the interactions present in the full system.The paper will compare predicted NVH performance of a representative EV traction motor when different boundary conditions are considered; for example, when considering the motor being bested in isolation as part of a typical test setup, and when included in a representative drivetrain. For each configuration, the response to mechanical and electro-mechanical noise mechanisms will be assessed, and the fidelity of simulation required to achieve an appropriate engineering insight will be considered.From these studies, the best practice…
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