Your Selections

Technical review
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

On-Board Post-Combustion CO2 Capture in Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty transport

Politecnico di Milano-Davide Bonalumi, Stefano Campanari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0012
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The European Union set the CO2 emission limit in the transport sector that will decrease in the next years. The purpose of this work is to assess through technical analysis, a system that captures part of the CO2 from the exhaust gases of duty vehicles. Two distinct categories of vehicles are considered, those with a mass lower than 3.5 tons and those with a higher mass. For the light-duty category, the analysis is developed estimating the consumptions and emissions based on the WLTP homologation cycle by means of the software Excel. For the heavy-duty category, the consumptions and the emissions are determined by means of the software specifically developed by the European Union for heavy-duty vehicles named VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool). From a literature review, different technologies are considered. The most suitable technology is selected. A possible way is based on the adsorption through the metal-organic framework (MOF). A dedicated review to select the most promising material indicates which can assure the best performance. The performances are evaluated based on the features of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

Hyundai Motor Co-Dong chul Lee
Hyundai Motor Group-Insoo Jung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1537
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

Audi Hungaria Zrt.-Antoine Guellec, Daniel Feszty
Hexagon | Free Field Technologies-Markus Brandstetter, Jonathan Jacqmot
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1549
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches. In this paper, the vibro-acoustic frequency response of an existing MSC Nastran FE model is extended using the Actran Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach, Virtual SEA. In Virtual SEA, the necessary…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

Graz University of Technology-Johannes Tieber, Helfried Steiner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1518
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound. Considering the generic test configuration of turbulent pipe flow, the present study investigates in particular the scope and the limits of incompressible Large-Eddy Simulation in predicting the evolution of turbulent sound sources to be supplied as source terms into acoustic analogies, which have been proposed for the computation of the acoustic pressure field. To this end, a comprehensive a priori analysis of fully resolved flow fields obtained from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) was carried out for different Reynolds numbers. The analysis of the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Review and Assessment of Multiaxial Fatigue Limit Models

FCA Canada Inc.-Shiping Zhang
FCA US LLC-Sean McKelvey, Eniyavan Subramanian, Yung-Li Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0192
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparison of multiaxial fatigue limit models and their correlation to experimental data. This paper investigates equivalent stress, critical plane and invariant-based multiaxial fatigue models. Several methods are investigated and compared based on ability to predict multiaxial fatigue limits from data published in literature. The equivalent stress based model developed by Lee, Tjhung and Jordan (LTJ), provides very accurate predictions of the fatigue limit under multiaxial loading due to its ability to account for non-proportional loading. This accuracy comes from the model constant which is calculated based on multiaxial fatigue data. This is the only model investigated that requires multiaxial fatigue testing to generate the model parameters. All other models rely on uniaxial test results. Of the five stress-based critical plane approaches investigated, the model proposed by Susmel and Lazzarin shows the greatest correlation with the multiaxial fatigue limit data. Overall, the invariant-based prismatic hull method has the best agreement with the data found in literature. Additionally, a new critical plane model has been proposed. This new…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Safety Assurance Concepts for Automated Driving Systems

University of Melbourne-Stuart Ballingall, Majid Sarvi, Peter Sweatman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0727
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving systems (ADSs) for road vehicles are being developed that can perform the entire dynamic driving task without a human driver in the loop. However, current regulatory frameworks for assuring vehicle safety may restrict the deployment of ADSs that can use machine learning to modify their functionality while in service. A review was undertaken to identify and assess key initiatives and research relevant to the safety assurance of adaptive safety-critical systems that use machine learning, and to highlight assurance concepts that could benefit from further research. The primary objective was to produce findings and recommendations that can inform policy and regulatory reform relating to ADS safety assurance. Due to the almost infinite number and combination of scenarios that an ADS could encounter, the review found much support for concepts that involve the use of simulation data as virtual evidence of safety compliance, with suggestions of a need to assure simulation tools and models. Real-world behavioural competency testing was also commonly proposed, although noting this concept has its limitations. The concept of whole-of-life assurance was…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Comparison of Componentization Constructs for Supporting Modularity in Simulink

FCA Canada Inc., McMaster University-Monika Jaskolka
McMaster University-Vera Pantelic, Alan Wassyng, Mark Lawford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1290
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Model-Based Development (MBD) paradigm is widely used for embedded controls development, with the MathWorks Simulink modelling environment being extensively used in the automotive industry. As production-scale Simulink models are typically large and complex, there exists a need to decompose them properly in order to facilitate their maintainability, understandability, and evolution. MathWorks recommends the use of three constructs for model “componentization” or decomposition: the Subsystem, Library, and Model Reference. However, a recently added construct introduced in Simulink R2014b, the Simulink Function, can also be used for this purpose, while also supporting information hiding due to the construct’s ability to be scoped and encapsulate data. This paper provides an in-depth comparison of these Simulink constructs to fully understand the differences in their reusability, sharing of program state, encapsulation, and code generation, with the goal of facilitating model evolution. An automotive powertrain example is provided to highlight the differences between approaches. Conventions for structuring models are also presented.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

AR projection for driver assistance in autonomous vehicles

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram, Balasubramanian Achuthan
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1035
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Augmented Reality (AR), which involves the integration of digital information with our physical environment in real-time, has been steadily growing over the past few years, finding its way into multiple areas of our lives. Augmented Reality (AR) in automotive vehicles has contributed to revolutionizing the way passengers and drivers access information, acquire knowledge and integrate into the physical spaces and destinations visited. The studies produced concerning this field are still limited, particularly in the perception of how users adopt technology and what use they make of it. On the other hand, even more limited are the studies that consider the role of stakeholders in the implementation of AR technology. In this paper, we discuss and propose solutions for following ADAS applications using projection unit mounted on board projecting on the windshield. • 5G in your route (signal strength - android applications on HU to detect the signal strength and display it on projection unit)). 5G connectivity help to realize the future of connected cars through higher speeds (up to 10 Gbps), better coverage (capacity expansion…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Efficient Surrogate-based NVH Optimization of a Full Vehicle Using FRF Based Substructuring

Beta CAE Systems USA Inc.-Inseok Park
Oakland University-Dimitrios Papadimitriou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0629
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The computer simulation with the Finite Element (FE) code for the structural dynamics becomes more attractive in the industry since it enables quickly evaluating the dynamic performances of the mechanical products like automobile in development with improved accuracy owing to modern technological advancements. However, it normally takes a prohibitive amount of computation time when design optimization is performed with conducting a dynamic analysis using a large-scale FE model many times. Exploiting Dynamic Structuring (DS) leads to alleviating the computational complexity since DS necessities iterative reanalysis of only the substructure(s) to be optimally designed. In this research, FRF Based Substructuring (FBS) is implemented to realize the benefits of DS for fast single- and multi-objective evolutionary design optimization. Also, Differential Evolution (DE) is first combined with two sorting approaches of NSGA-II and Infeasibility Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (IDEA) for effective constrained single- and multi-objective evolutionary optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm (NSGA-II/DE-IDEA) is verified using several test functions for constrained single- and multi-objective optimization. To circumvent the need for frequent time-consuming simulation runs, Kriging surrogate models are…