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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp Ltd-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studi-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.

Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Vishal Eknath Kirve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2442
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields. The main purpose of this paper is focused on the review of basic concept of Industry 4.0, the number of new tools and techniques used by smart agriculture for the improvement in the fields and the list of benefits of smart agricultural solutions. Smart Agriculture is using advanced technologies such as…


General Motors Technical Center India-Vijayasarathy Subramanian, Anandakumar Marappan, Biju Kumar, Masani Sivakrishna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2525
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Shared Mobility is changing the trends in Automotive Industry and its one of the Disruptions. The current vehicle customer usage and life of components are designed majorly for personal vehicle and with factors that comprehend usage of shared vehicles. The usage pattern for customer differ between personal vehicle, shared vehicle & Taxi. In the era of Autonomous and Shared mobility systems, the customer usage and expectation is high. The vehicle needs systems that will control customer interactions (Self-Expressive) & fix the issues on their own (Self-Healing). These two systems / methods will help in increasing customer satisfaction and life of the vehicle. We will be focusing on vehicle Closure hardware & mechanisms and look for opportunities to improve product life and customer experience in ride share and shared mobility vehicles by enabling integrated designs, which will Self-Express & Self-Heal. Vehicle closures having direct human interfaces with components like closures, handle & other hardware's will be tracked for their performance parameters and usage pattern. The performance parameters will be tracked for every customer and mapped to…

A review on influence of different flushing methods on Material Removal Rate using EDM.

Manav Rachna International University-Gurpreet Singh Matharou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2543
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electrical release machining (EDM), is a material removal procedure whereby a coveted shape is acquired by utilizing electrical releases (sparks). Material is expelled from the work piece by a progression of quickly repeating current releases between cathode and anode, isolated by a dielectric fluid and subject to an electric voltage. At the point when the voltage between the two terminals is expanded, the power of the electric field in the volume between the anodes winds up more prominent than the quality of the dielectric (in any event in a few spots), which separates, enabling current to stream between the two cathodes. This wonder is the equivalent as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser). Accordingly, material is expelled from the cathodes. Once the present stops (or is quit, contingent upon the sort of generator), new fluid dielectric is generally passed on into the between cathode volume, empowering the strong particles (flotsam and jetsam) to be diverted and the protecting properties of the dielectric to be reestablished. Including new fluid dielectric in the between anode volume is…

Paper Title : Connectivity in 2wheeler: Opportunities & Challenges

Robert Bosch Engrg & Bus Solutions , Ltd.-Sathyanarayana Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2437
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 3 main pillar viz Connected , Electrified and Automated Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer Base , Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. The next step in this journey would be to connect the so called “Things” and the Things that we want to connect is the 2 wheeler in the Mobility domain This paradigm shift in the Mobility Landscape is expected to bring plethora of opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment , and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership Methodology: Analysis of OEM and Supplier strategies/approaches and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Results: We try to make an attempt to understand the Mobility trends in 2wheeler and how Connectivity shall play a pivotal role in enabling…

Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2480
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept. Analysis of real data with simulated results will be done to infer potential of the concept. Results: We are trying to understand the mobility demand and the causes…

Methodology for failure simulation Using 4 corner 6 DOF Road load simulator of Overhanging Components: An Experimental Approach

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd-Naveen Malik, Sahil Jindal, Sayed Zergham Ali Naqvi
Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Ayan Bhattacharya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2404
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors. For generation of proper drive file, not only good FRF but ensuring stability of inverse FRF is also essential. Stability of the inverse FRF depends upon the simulation channels used. In this paper, an experimental approach was applied for focused failure simulation of engine mount, one of such low correlation zone, with known history of failure. Methodology was established to simulate proving ground loads on engine mount along with simulation of loads at wheel center using a 4 corner 6 DOF road load simulator. Result was verified by endurance run on test rig and matching the nature…

A Mathematical Approach to Determine Die Wear during Forging Process and Validation by Experimental Technique

Dr P K Ajeet Babu-Ajeet Babu P K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2563
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is constantly trying to develop cost effective, high strength and lightweight components to meet the emission and safety norms while remaining competitive in the market. Forging process plays an important role to produce most of the structural components in a vehicle. Precision forging technology is used to produce components with little or no flash leading to elimination of machining process after forging. The load acting on the dies during net or near net forging is very high and leads to wear in the die. In order to have a good die it is important that die wear which is an inevitable phenomenon in a bulk metal forming processes is predicted mathematically. In this study a review on the vast number of studies done in the area of wear and various predictive models is carried out. The various models available for abrasive wear such as Archard, Felder-Montagut and IFUM model and for adhesive wear such as Holms model has been studied and implemented in commercial FE Code by developing FORTRAN subroutine and wear…

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2141
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers. On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic stability control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring electronic stability control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) that were implemented until 2017. In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability…

Disc Thickness Variation (DTV) Operational Measurement and Influence on the Overall Vehicle Roughness

Applus IDIADA-Bernat Ferrer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2110
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The brake disc or rotor design is one of the main concerns in the development of the vehicle brake system. One of the key factors of its drawing and manufacture gets related with the thermo-mechanical deformation that can transmit further vibrations on the complete vehicle. This phenomenon, called brake judder or roughness, can appear in both cold and hot brake conditions, being especially the second one affected by the thermal factor. The evolution of the disc shape fluctuation and Disc Thickness Variation (DTV) is usually illustrated before and after a test, reflecting typically the same output. However, the real transient disc behaviour during these phases is rarely measured and difficult to determine. The reality is that most of the times, some unexpected deformations can appear, being the final root cause of the excitation of judder vibration. During the cold judder, the disc starts at a low temperature and controlled DTV, which corresponds to the disc’s natural shape and only affected by the wear conditions. On the other hand, hot judder is performed by repeating consecutive…