Your Selections

Technical review
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

Cummins Inc.-Changsheng Su, Joseph Brault, Achuth Munnannur, Z. Gerald Liu, Sean Milloy, Arvind Harinath, David Dunnuck, Ken Federle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0026
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device. The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: a). internal dosing is more efficient than external dosing to control HC slip; High CPSI DOCs show better HC oxidation performance at high SV due to enhanced mass transfer; b). the adopted advanced DPF technologies enable greater ash capacity for long maintenance intervals; c). SCR performance was optimized with the use of a hydrothermally robust Cu-Zeolite catalyst coated on high CPSI substrates.

The impact of direct injection system design on PM emissions

H-D Systems-K. Gopal Duleep
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0072
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
GDI engines can have significantly higher particulate mass (PM) and particulate number (PN) emissions relative to equivalent displacement PFI engines. Both the EPA and California Air Resources Board have adopted new stringent standards to be phased in over the next 10 years. The California LEV III regulations continue to tighten to a 1 mg/mi FTP PM limit that is phased-in beginning with model year 2025 with full compliance by model year 2028. This study examines the different technological approaches that will be used to attain the standards to as well as their relative costs, market penetration potential, emission reduction and fuel economy impacts. The identification of alternative approaches and the analysis of their impacts was performed in two tasks. The first task was a comprehensive literature review and the findings of the review are presented in this report. In the second task, information on topics not fully informed by the literature review was obtained from interviews with experts at auto-manufacturers and fuel system suppliers. The information from the interviews was integrated with the findings from…

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and its Impact on Emissions

FKFS-Marco Chiodi, Andreas Kaechele
FKFS / IVK, University Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0039
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto-cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective, yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. Our approach is to employ the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels. This operation mode leads to substantial improvements in terms of fuel consumption up to highest load conditions. Developed in close collaboration with Volkswagen Motorsport and the FKFS, the experimental investigations are carried…

Heat of Vaporization and Species Evolution During Gasoline Evaporation Measured by DSC/TGA/MS for Blends of C1 to C4 Alcohols in Commercial Gasoline Blendstocks

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Gina M. Fioroni, Earl Christensen, Lisa Fouts, Robert McCormick
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0014
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Evaporative cooling of the fuel-air charge is an important feature of direct-injection spark-ignition engines that improves fuel knock resistance but, in some cases, may increase fine particle emissions. We have reported on experimental approaches for measuring both total heat of vaporization and examination of the evaporative heat effect as a function of fraction evaporated for gasolines and ethanol blends. In this paper we extend this work to include other low-molecular-weight alcohols and additionally present results on species evolution during fuel evaporation by coupling of a mass spectrometer to our differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric analysis instrument (DSC/TGA/MS). The alcohols examined were methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, i-propanol, 2-butanol, and i-butanol. The results show that total HOV of the alcohol gasoline blends is in line with the decreasing HOV in kJ/kg with increasing alcohol carbon number, as expected. The results are analyzed to understand how different alcohols affect species evolution during evaporation, especially evaporation of aromatic compounds that are precursors to soot particles.

Assessing the impact of FAME and diesel fuel composition on stability and vehicle filter blocking

BP Formulated Products Technology-Christopher Roy-Smith
University of Bath-Kesavan Gopalan, Christopher J. Chuck, Christopher D. Bannister
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0049
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, there has been an impetus in the automotive industry to develop newer diesel injection systems with a view to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This development has led to hardware capable of higher pressures, typically up to 2000 - 2500 bar. Simultaneously, regulatory requirements have resulted in a change in fuel composition with a move towards the development and use of renewable fuels around the world. Over the past few decades the percentage of biodiesel, in the case of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), in the global fuel supply has increased to meet the European EN 590 limit now set to 7% for diesel fuels sold within the EU and with aspirations to increase this level. The unsaturation in FAME is widely thought to increase the propensity to oxidation than other regular hydrocarbon species present in diesel resulting in in-vehicle fuel degradation leading to solid formation in the fuel. Another growing concern is the theory that the increasing temperatures and pressures experienced by the fuel in the new injector system technologies has…
new

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

University of California Irvine, USA-Van Wifvat, Brendan Shaffer, Scott Samuelsen
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-01-0001
Published 2018-12-11 by SAE International in United States
This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%). Vehicular CS are relatively technologically mature and promise fuel economy enhancement but require integration with other sensor technologies for robust performance.
new

Simulation for Everyone

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33419
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

With the computational power and software available today, numerical simulation is a real option to quickly get answers to complicated technical, scientific, and engineering questions. Not only has the hardware doubled computing capacity every 18 months or so over the past decades, but the numerical algorithms have improved at the same rate.

new

Tantalum Alloy, Bars and Rods 90Ta - 10W

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS7848D
  • Current
Published 2018-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a tantalum alloy in the form of bars and rods up through 3.5 inches (88.9 mm), inclusive.
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
new

NUT, SPLINE DRIVE - EXTENDED WASHER, CUPWASHER LOCK, UNS S66286, SILVER PLATE, MJ THREAD, METRIC

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • MA3351
  • Current
Published 2018-11-21 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
new

Tolerances Low-Alloy Steel Bars

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2251J
  • Current
Published 2018-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers established inch/pound manufacturing tolerances applicable to low-alloy steel bars ordered to inch/pound dimensions. These tolerances apply to all conditions, unless otherwise noted. The term “exclusive” is used to apply only to the higher figure of the specified range.
Datasets icon
Annotation icon