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Dynamic-Static Optimization Design with Uncertain Parameters for Lift Arm of Parking Robot

Tongji University-Xiang Xu, Xinbo Chen, Zhe Liu, Yanan Xu, Yan Li, Yunkai Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0511
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are a large number of uncertainties in engineering design, and the accumulated uncertainties will enlarge the overall failure probability of the structure system. Therefore, structural design considering uncertainties has good guiding significance for improving the reliability of engineering structures. To address this issue, the dynamic-static structural topology optimization is established and reliability-based topology optimization with decoupling format is conducted in this study. The design point which satisfying the constraint of the target reliability indicator is obtained according to the reliability indicators of the first-order reliability method, and the uncertain design variables are modified into a deterministic variable according to the sensitivity information. What's more, the reliability-based topology optimization is performed by dividing the problem into two independent sub-problems of reliability analysis and equivalent deterministic topology optimization, and the feasibility of the reliability-based optimization method is verified with the lift arm of parking robot. To meet the dynamic-static performances and lightweight requirements of the lift arm of parking robot, the multi-objective topology optimization model of the lift arm is established by the combined compliance method.…
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Self-Exploration of Automated System under Dynamic Environment

Isuzu Technical Center of America Inc.-Weiyang Zhang, Yong Sun, Haokun He, Wenbo Yu, Pengcheng Cai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0126
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exploring an unknown place autonomously is a challenge for robots, especially when the environment is changing. Moreover, in real world application, efficient path planning is crucial for autonomous vehicles to have timely response to execute a collision-free motion. In this paper we focus on environment exploration which enables an automated system to establish a map of an unknown environment with unforeseen objects moving within it. We introduce an exploration package that enables robots self-exploration with an online collision avoidance planner. The package consists of exploration module, global planner module and local planner module. We modularize the package so that developers can easily make modifications or even substitutions to some modules for their specific application. In order to validate the algorithm, we designed and built a robot car as a low cost validation platform to test the autonomous vehicle algorithms in the real world. The car has a 22.36 x 11.65 x 7.6 inches, 4X4 brush-less short course truck chassis, which has a dynamic model similar to a passenger car, but in a scaled pattern. An…
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Characterization of Seat Lateral Support as a Mechanical Behavior

General Motors LLC-Bonita Thomas
OBannon Technologies-Terry O'Bannon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0870
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Seat lateral support is often talked about as a design parameter, but usually in terms of psychological perception. There are many difficulties in quantifying lateral support mechanically to the engineering teams: Anthropometric variation causes different people to interact with the seat in different places and at different angles, BPD studies are usually planar and don’t distinguish between horizontal support and vertical resistance to sinking in, most mechanical test systems are typically single-DOF and can’t apply vertical and horizontal loads concurrently, and there is scant literature describing the actual lateral loads occupants. In this study, we characterize the actual lateral loading on example seating (both driver and passenger, as passenger experience will become more important as autonomous vehicles evolve) from various sized/ shaped occupants according to dynamic pressure distribution. From this information, a six-DOF load and position control test robot (KUKA OccuBot) is used to replicate that pressure distribution. The effect of various sizes and shapes of indenters is explored. In the spirit of the appendix of SAE standard J2896, we suggest some standard mechanical test…
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ROS and XCP in Traditional ECU Development

ETAS Inc.-Tobias Gutjahr, Matthew Roddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1367
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Originally developed for the service robot industry, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has lately received a lot of attention from the automotive sector with use cases, especially, in the area of advanced driver assistance systems and autonomous driving (ADAS/AD). Introduced as communication framework on top a of a host operating system, the value proposition of ROS is to simplify the software development in large-scale heterogeneous computing systems. Developers can focus on the application layer and let ROS handle the discovery of all participants in the system and establish communication in-between them. Despite the recent success of ROS, standardized automotive communication protocols such as the Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol (XCP) are still dominant in the electronic control unit (ECU) development of traditional vehicle subsystems like engine, transmission, braking system, etc. XCP guarantees that common measurement and calibration tools can be used across different vehicles with ECUs from multiple suppliers. With the advancing area of ADAS/AD, we also expect the presence of ROS-based modules in the development of new vehicle platforms to increase. In this paper,…
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RDE Plus - A Road to Rig Development Methodology for Whole Vehicle RDE Compliance: Overview

HORIBA MIRA, Ltd.-Philip Roberts, Alex Mason, Steve Whelan, Kunio Tabata, Yosuke Kondo, Tatsuki Kumagai, Richard Mumby, Luke Bates
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0376
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To aid Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) in meeting Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulation criteria across the extended boundary conditions of temperature, altitude and driving style, an integrated Road to Rig (R2R) whole vehicle development, calibration and verification approach known as RDE Plus (RDE+) has been developed by HORIBA MIRA. Encompassing testing on the road, chassis dynamometer, Engine-in-the-Loop (EiL) and virtual testing methodologies, OEMs will be able to deploy real world driving scenarios further upstream during vehicle and engine development programmes; hence reduce development timescales and costs that will otherwise inevitably increase due to RDE regulations. Reported in the current paper is a brief introduction to the baseline RDE road tests followed by replication of several real RDE cycles that cover the RDE extended boundary conditions with the vehicle driven by a robot driver on the chassis dynamometer. Altitude and temperature requirements were fulfilled using a HORIBA Multi-function Efficient Dynamic Altitude Simulation (MEDAS) system with driving style parameterised according to the RDE regulation parameter va_pos[95] as a percentage of its limit. For all routes, there was…
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RDE Plus - A Road to Rig Development Methodology for Complete RDE Compliance: Road to Chassis Perspective

HORIBA MIRA, Ltd.-Alex Mason, Philip Roberts, Steve Whelan, Yosuke Kondo, Leo Brenton
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0378
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To aid Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) in meeting future Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulation criteria across extended environmental conditions, a Road to Rig (R2R) whole vehicle development, calibration and verification approach, currently known as RDE Plus (RDE+), has been developed at HORIBA MIRA. This paper compliments a summary paper by the same authors, which provides an overview of the RDE+ methodology and HORIBA MIRA’s vision for future vehicle development. Within the present paper, the methodologies required for replicating real RDE road tests on a chassis dynamometer are discussed in depth. These include: application of robot driver for successful cycle replication and repeatability, use of HORIBA’s Multi-function Efficient Dynamic Altitude Simulation (MEDAS) system in conjunction with a climatic test cell to replicate the engine, vehicle and environmental conditions experienced during the road tests and use of IPG Car Maker for Vehicle-in-Loop (ViL) activities. For cycle replication using the robot driver, two methods are presented: a “load matching” method whereby robot driver pedal inputs are controlled in an open-loop fashion and “speed matching” whereby the robot driver…
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Integration of Autonomous Vehicle Frameworks for Software-in-the-Loop Testing

Clemson University-Sanket Bachuwar, Ardashir Bulsara, Huzefa Dossaji, Aditya Gopinath, Chris Paredis, Srikanth Pilla, Yunyi Jia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0709
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an approach for performing software in the loop testing of autonomous vehicle software developed in the Autoware.IO framework. Multitudes of autonomous driving frameworks exist today, each having its own pros and cons. Often, MATLAB-Simulink is used for rapid prototyping, system modeling and testing, specifically for the lower-level vehicle dynamics and powertrain control features. For the autonomous software, the Robotic Operating System (ROS) is more commonly used for integrating distributed software components so that they can easily share information through a publish and subscribe paradigm. Thorough testing and evaluation of such complex, distributed software, implemented on a physical vehicle poses significant challenges in terms of safety, time, and cost, especially when considering rare edge cases. Virtual prototyping is therefore a crucial enabler in the development of autonomous software. In a simulated environment, many traffic scenarios under a variety of environmental conditions can be quickly evaluated, at low cost, without safety concerns. In this paper, we report on a particular simulation environment consisting of three simulation tools. PreScan (by Siemens/TASS) combined with Simulink (by…
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Capability-Driven Adaptive Task Distribution for Flexible Multi-Human-Multi-Robot (MH-MR) Manufacturing Systems

Chang’an University-Shaobo Zhang
Clemson University-Yunyi Jia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1303
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Collaborative robots are more and more used in smart manufacturing because of their capability to work beside and collaborate with human workers. With the deployment of these robots, manufacturing tasks are more inclined to be accomplished by multiple humans and multiple robots (MH-MR) through teaming effort. In such MH-MR collaboration scenarios, the task distribution among the multiple humans and multiple robots is very critical to efficiency. It is also more challenging due to the heterogeneity of different agents. Existing approaches in task distribution among multiple agents mostly consider humans with assumed or known capabilities. However human capabilities are always changing due to various factors, which may lead to suboptimal efficiency. Although some researches have studied several human factors in manufacturing and applied them to adjust the robot task and behaviors. However, the real-time modeling and calculation of multiple human capabilities and real-time adaptive task distribution in flexible MH-MR manufacturing according to human capabilities are still challenging due to the complexity of human capabilities and heterogeneous multi-agent interactions. To address these issues, this paper first proposes…
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Benchmarking the Localization Accuracy of 2D SLAM Algorithms on Mobile Robotic Platforms

Clemson University-Mugdha Basu Thakur, Matthias Schmid, Venkat N Krovi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1021
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The information regarding the position of a robotic platform relative to its environment is essential for a multitude of subsequent applications such as obstacle avoidance, path planning, navigation and motion-control. In recent times, numerous Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms have emerged, including easily deployable ROS implementations. These solutions differ in their implementation techniques and often depend heavily on the quality of sensor housed on the robot. The objective of this paper is to help users make an informed decision on the SLAM algorithm to use depending on the type of hardware available and the desired final application. We analyzed four different SLAM algorithms that are currently deployed in ROS and are extensively used in various practices in robotics: Gmapping, Hector, Karto and Cartographer. The accuracy with which the four SLAM algorithms can localize a differential drive robot in a controlled indoor environment was benchmarked against the OptiTrack motion tracking system. The OptiTrack motion capturing system, using Prime13 cameras, is a powerful 3D motion tracking tool that is capable of finding the pose of an…
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Improving Robotic Accuracy through Iterative Teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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