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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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A communication-free Human-Robot-Collaboration approach for aircraft riveting process using AI planning

Saarland University-Jörg Hoffmann
ZeMA gGmbH-Khansa Rekik, Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0013
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks. In (Mueller, Rainer, et al. 2019) a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion. Although intuitive, interacting with the robot constantly is still not natural for the worker as in the manual process no explicit communication between both workers is needed. In this work a communication-free Human-Robot-collaboration solution is presented. The method developed not only enables sharing assembly missions by…
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Unsettled Technology Domains in Robotics for Automation in Aerospace Manufacturing

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019010
Published 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Cost reduction and increasing production rates are driving automation of aerospace manufacturing. Articulated serial robots may replace bespoke gantry automation or human operations. Improved accuracy is key to enabling operations such as machining, additive manufacturing (AM), composite fabrication, drilling, automated program development, and inspection. New accuracy standards are needed to enable process-relevant comparisons between robotic systems.Accuracy can be improved through calibration of kinematic and joint stiffness parameters, joint output encoders, adaptive control that compensates for thermal expansion, and feedforward control that compensates for hysteresis and external loads. The impact of datuming could also be significantly reduced through modeling and optimization. Highly dynamic end effectors compensate high-frequency disturbances using inertial sensors and reaction masses. Global measurement feedback is a high-accuracy turnkey solution, but it is costly and has limited capability to compensate dynamic errors. Local measurement feedback is a mature, affordable, and highly accurate technology where the robot is required to position or align relative to some local feature. Locally clamped machine tools are an alternative approach that can utilize the flexibility of industrial robots while…
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The Role of Sensors in the Evolution of Robotics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35609
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

At one time, robotics was considered more science fiction than reality. That's changing. Today, robots are increasingly playing a role in our everyday lives. They're zooming around our homes to pick up dust, helping surgeons perform operations with even more precision, sniffing out suspicious packages for law enforcement, and on the factory floor, they're performing all kinds of tasks for automotive, electronics, and industrial manufacturing companies.

Biologically Inspired Artificial Skin Improves Sensory Ability of Robots

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35611
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Inspired by human skin, a system was developed that combines artificial skin with control algorithms. The system was used to create the first autonomous humanoid robot with full-body artificial skin.

Algorithm Gives Robots a Faster Grasp

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35615
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A robot that's sorting through a bin of objects and attempting to get a good grasp on one of them is performing a computationally taxing maneuver. Before even attempting the move, it must calculate a litany of properties and probabilities such as the friction and geometry of the table, the pen, and its two fingers, and how various combinations of these properties interact mechanically based on fundamental laws of physics.

Collaborative Automation: It's More Than Just the Cobot

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35608
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Collaborative robots, often called “cobots,” offer opportunities for companies of almost any size to cost-effectively automate processes that were previously out of reach. Cobots are available in a wide range of sizes, payloads, and capabilities but they all share attributes that define the term “collaborative.” The aspect that most people think of first is safety — the ability for cobots to work alongside human workers without bulky, expensive guarding. Cobots include a number of built-in safety mechanisms including rounded edges and softer materials as well as power-and force-limiting technologies that avoid injury and minimize discomfort in case of contact, and sensors that automatically slow or stop the robot arm if a human enters its workspace.

Docking System Enables Safe Rendezvous in Space

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35614
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Even though it has been done many times before, the docking maneuver between two objects in space is always a delicate and potentially dangerous procedure. The speed is extremely high (about 28,000 km/h in the case of the International Space Station, or ISS), and corrections are difficult. When the two objects are about to meet, maneuvering thrusters can no longer be used since their exhaust plumes can cause damage. To prevent harm, cargo transporters are caught by a robotic arm installed in the ISS and berthed manually. Manned spacecraft, on the other hand, dock directly in a computer-controlled process.

2019 'Create the Future' Manufacturing/Robotics/Automation Category Winner: The HPCI® Joining Gun

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35440
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States
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Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: November 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19AVEP11
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Editorial Bill Visnic: Expect the unexpectedThe Navigator Sam Abuelsamid: Separating illusion from magic in AV deploymentThe Road to Automobility The era of electrified, self-driving vehicles is upon us. Engineers are key to the transformation - with much hard work still to be done.Far and Away: Remote Drivers Monitor Autonomous Vehicles Remote operators are helping autonomous shuttles and other AVs navigate through complex situations.Mapping Canada - Centimeter by Centimeter A Montreal-based company leverages artificial intelligence to take on the task of developing high-definition maps of Canada.You've Lost That Queasy Feeling… Transcontinental research aims to understand the complex nature of motion sickness to help improve the automated-vehicle experience.3D Sonar Sees Objects Overlooked by Costlier Sensors A dream of robotic fish inspires inexpensive automated-driving sensing technology that works for the critical areas close to the vehicle.Familiarity Breeds Respect SAE surveyed participants in its recently-concluded AV 'Demo Days' ride-along program. Their responses reinforce positive perceptions about the automated-driving experience.The AV Industry Searches for a Near-Term Business Case The TechCrunch Sessions at San Jose's Mobility 2019 conference advance the dialogue…