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Blocked force determination on an engine cover

Univ of Kentucky-David Herrin
Univ. of Kentucky-Keyu Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1525
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Blocked force determination is an alternative to the more customary method of using transfer path analysis to determine inverse forces. The primary advantage of the approach is that the source does not need to be detached from the machine. Results are valid so long as the source and machine are intact and the blocked forces are determined at the interface between the source and machine. In this research, an engine cover considered as receiver is bolted on a plastic source plate and electrical shaker is used to excite the plastic plate. Blocked forces are calculated on the bolts between engine cover and plastic plate and virtual blocked forces are also calculated on a virtual interface on engine cover. The accuracy of calculated blocked forces is assessed by comparing the predicted and simulated responses at selected receiver points which were not used for the inverse force analysis.
 

Broadband Membrane-type Acoustic Metamaterial Structures with Polymorphic Anti-resonance Modes

Gissing Tech. Co., Ltd.-Qianqian Zhang, Xiujie Tian, Wei Huang, Keda Zhu
Xi’an Jiaotong University-Guojian Zhou, Jiu Hui Wu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1574
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The researches indicate that rational design of membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) can make it have a high sound transmission loss (STL) at the anti-resonant frequency. Based on the principle of local resonance of acoustic metamaterials, this paper studied the coupling interactions between sound field and vibration modes, and designed four lightweight MAM structural units with different distributed harmonic oscillators, and then the anti-resonant behaviors of different units within the low frequency were gradually analyzed. The regulation mechanism of continuous polymorphic anti-resonance modes on broadening STL bandwidth was further revealed, and the STL characteristics have been verified within the low-frequency range by numerical simulation and experiments. The results show that the design of a single cross-shaped resonator can increase the diversity of anti-resonance modes and eliminate the node-circular-type resonance mode, then ensure the wider STL bandwidth. Furthermore, four metal platelets set symmetrically between the swing arms based on the unit above increase the local anti-resonance modes of the new unit, which greatly expand the STL bandwidth by shifting its upper limit to the right. In addition,…
 

Research on the Model of Safety Boundary Condition Based on Vehicle Intersection Conflict and Collision

Tongji University-Biao Wu, Xichan Zhu, Maozhu Liao, Rui Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0132
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Because of the high frequency and serious consequences of traffic accidents in the intersection area, it is of great significance to study the vehicle conflict and collision scenarios of the intersection area. Due to few actual crash accidents occurring in naturalistic driving studies data or field operational tests data, the data of traffic accident database should be also used to analyze the intersection conflict and collision. According to the China Field Operation Test (China-FOT) database and the China in Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database, the distribution feature of the respective intersection scenario type is obtained from the data analysis. Based on the intersection scenario type, two characters of intersection conflict and collision, the environmental character and the vehicle dynamic character, are used to analyze for the integration process of intersection conflict and collision. The environmental character contains several parameters, including environment type, weather and time, which has a strong influence on the collision accidents. Through the environmental parameters analyzing, the distribution model of environmental character is obtained. The vehicle dynamic character includes two vehicle dynamic…
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Research on Key Factors for Range and Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Chongqing Changan New Energy Auto Co.Ltd.-Chen Zhao, Guan Gong, Cheng Yu, Ying Liu, Shu Zhong, Yanxing Song, Chenghao Deng, Anjian Zhou, Honglu Ye
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0723
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Investigations have been carried out to examine the potential to optimize the energy consumption and drive range of the Electric Vehicles (EV). Theoretically, the energy consumption is strongly influenced by system efficiency, coasting resistance and energy recovery technology. In this paper, these three aspects have been studied in detail through both simulation tool and experimental test. Research has been conducted on a Changan sedan EV to explore the influence of each factor on the energy consumption and drive range. The most paramount factor is the vehicle coasting resistance, followed by the power-train system efficiency. To reduce the coasting resistance, interests can be drawn to the application of tire with low resistance coefficient, low friction brake clamp and the modification of vehicle styling. The drive-train efficiency includes the motor efficiency, inverter efficiency and the gearbox efficiency. Interestingly, the effect of energy recovery technology is sensitive to the driving conditions. The I-pedal technology which can supply deceleration up to 0.2g has little influence over NEDC but can extend the range over real-world driving by up to 10%…
 

A dynamic local trajectory planning and tracking method for UGV based on optimal algorithm

Chongqing University-Yangxin Sun, Zhenfei Zhan, Yudong Fang, Ling Zheng, Liuhui Wang, Gang Guo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0871
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) is gaining increasing amounts of attention from both industry and academic communities in recent years. Local trajectory planning is one of the most important part of designing an UGV. However, there has been little research into local trajectory planning and tracking, and current research has not considered the dynamic of surrounding environment. Therefore, in this paper we proposed a dynamic local trajectory planning and tracking method for UGV driving on the highway. The method proposed in this paper can make the UGV travel from the starting point to the end point, given by the navigation system, without collision on both straight and curve road. The key technology for this method is trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. First, we turned trajectory planning in to an optimization problem. Trajectory planning algorithm calculates a reference trajectory satisfying the demands of safety, comfort and traffic efficiency and update the reference trajectory when there is potential of collision. Next, to track the planned trajectory, the trajectory-tracking controller formulated the tracking task as a model predictive control…
 

Research on the different behavior of edge cracking limit by adopting the laser cutting method

Oakland University-Junrui Li, Wan Xu, Boyang Zhang, Lianxiang Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1264
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The edge fracture occurs more frequently during the forming procedure by using the material with higher strength. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the edge cracking limit at different pre-strain level needs to be determined. The edge of the part under forming is conventionally manufactured by mechanical cutting, and the edge cracking limit under this circumstance is already heavily studied. In recent years, laser cutting is more applied in the automotive industry to cutting the edge due to the following advantages over mechanical cutting: easier work holding, higher precision, no wearing, smaller heat-affected zone, etc. The change cutting method could lead to a different behavior to the edge cracking limit at different pre-strain level. In this paper, the edge cracking limits of sets of pre-strained coupons with different pre-strain levels are tested. Half of them is cut by the conventional punch method, and the other half uses laser cutting. These cut pre-strained half dog-bone coupons are loaded under a uniaxial tension to acquire the edge cracking limit. The thinning strain is…
 

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Takeshi Hotaka, Tomonori Sakai, Hideki Miura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0623
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula. It was verified that the application of the new correction formula reduced variation in running resistance from 2.7% (in the case of regulation correction) to 1.0%.In addition, in order to offer a simpler method of realizing the same correction, a technique for correction…
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Analysis of the pressure loss increase mechanism by Ash accumulated of coated GPF

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Noritaka Masumitsu, Shinichiro Otsuka, Ryoko Fujikura, Yusuke Imai, Tetsuo Endo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0981
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
At accelerating exhaust gas regulations during recent years, not only are CO / HC / NOx getting stricter, but so are PN regulations, as represented by Euro 6 d and China 6. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE (real driving emissions), PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from a gasoline engine, it is effective to equip a GPF (gasoline particulate filter) to have a filter structure. We have so far developed a system to replace the TWC (three-way catalyst) of the rear bed with a GPF in order to mount the GPF without changing the layout of the TWC 2 bed system. We chose a coated GPF with filter function and TWC function. Since the amount of washcoat and the initial pressure loss are in conflicting relation with the coated GPF, we developed a coated GPF that can achieve both low initial pressure loss and high purification performance. Although GPF can collect PM, Ash derived from the engine oil component accumulates and…
 

Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell with Metal Foam Flow Field

Tianjin University-Xu Xie, Xiaoyan Sun, Mengqian Zhu, Guobin Zhang, Kui Jiao
University of California - Davis-Siyuan Wu, Jae Wan Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0388
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Compared with conventional flow field, metal foam has been increasingly used for gas distributor in the PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell due to its high porosity and conductivity, which significantly enhances the species transport under high current density condition. In this study, the cell performances with metal foam and graphite parallel flow field are compared under normal and subzero temperature conditions. Besides, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is recorded to characterize the Ohmic, polarization and polarization resistance. Under normal condition, the cell with metal foam exhibits three times better performance than the one with parallel flow field. Meanwhile, the effects of inlet gas humidity and flow rates on cell performance are also studied, indicating that the cathode flooding easily occurs due to its difficult water removal. However, the high flow rate can greatly ease the cathode water flooding. Under subzero temperature condition, metal foam cell shows higher startup voltage and better ice storage capability. In addition, the effects of start-up temperature and current density on cold start performance of PEM fuel cell are studied and…
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Customer Oriented Vehicle Dynamics Assessment for Autonomous Driving in Highway

Centro Ricerche Fiat-Giovanni Gabiati
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Silvio Data
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1020
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, thanks to continuous improvement in IT, carmakers spend great efforts on studies regarding Autonomous driving. Autonomous driving is the most advanced and focused research area for what concerns the automotive field and Carmakers are mainly investing money in this field but in most cases the analysis is centered towards the efforts on control logic, legal issues or possible benefits of autonomous driving. This paper’s objective is to evaluate the vehicle dynamic response of an autonomous driven vehicle, in particular, evaluation of vehicle/driver performance for a highway overtake maneuver. Obviously in this new scenario the vehicle will be driven autonomously, so performance evaluation means comfort evaluation. For this reason, the acceleration magnitude of peaks must be observed in a complete different logic eventually with new thresholds, as well as new magnitudes. Lateral acceleration variation (jerk) for example is going to be a key parameter for this evaluation. RMSs remain interesting indicators for comfort like the best practice for NVH evaluations, but in this kind of maneuvers horizontal accelerations should also be considered. In this very…