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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019005
To be published on 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components – which together represent almost $2 trillion of the United State economy – are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs. In this SAE Edge report, six senior industry leaders in the impacted ecosystems essay articles which describes sectors of the current automotive ecosystem and the manner in which AV technology can potentially reshape them – providing a mosaic of the massive infrastructure shifts which will be required to absorb autonomous vehicle technologies. NOTE:…
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Occupant Controlled Ventilation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2461
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter. When CO2 levels go up, fresh air is added until the CO2 levels…
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NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Boobala Krishnan D, Himanshi Dua, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP J-case fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, micro relay and mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and High current micro relay respectively. Results We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation…
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Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI Academy-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…
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Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Devesh Pareek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2483
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b. Optimization of Design Specs and duty cycle based on real world driving cycles. c. Innovative Heat dissipation techniques to minimize energy loss to heat. d. Efficient Electrical to Chemical Energy conversion and vice versa through use of optimization techniques based on…
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Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

College of Engineering-Pune-Ravindra Dattatray Marwadi, Rajiv Basavarajappa
HELLA India Automotive Pvt Ltd.-Abhishek Mandhana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…
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Changes in user experiences of electric vehicles

General Motors LLC-Pandurang Baliga, Tulasi KL
General Motors Technical Center India-Rudrappa Madagunki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2489
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research Objective The objective of the paper is to research what are the changes in experiences being brought about due to the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are silent, have less complex propulsion system, and have free space under the hood, amongst other things. Each change brings about both good and bad experiences across the spectrum of users. Some of the bad experiences can be safety incidents leading to death as well. Researching the areas that are harmful to end users, including pedestrians, will be our focus area. Methodology Our methodology will look at the changes at the vehicle architecture level which are inherent to the EV design. Research how are the experiences so far due to these changes. Are these just inconveniences or safety hazards? EVs have excellent NVH characteristics. A farmer may love a silent tractor, but a racing enthusiast may not like a relatively silent sports car. A silent armored vehicle may be what the army needs, but a silent car’s approach may be a last-minute surprise to an unsuspecting pedestrian,…
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Effect of Tyre inflation Pressure on Rolling Resistance of Tyre

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Siddharth Tripathi, Amit Kumar Karwal, Mukund Mishra, Dushyant Wazir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2415
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is,not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel,, surface adhesion, sliding, and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
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Development of low cost life saving system for Automotive vehicles during Road Accidents.

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Sachin Madhukarrao Pajgade, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2460
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
According to research study 45% of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also loose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect. When vehicle met accident, people are not getting on time support, this delay is the major cause of death in developing nations. Presently there is no any robust system available in market for passenger & commercial vehicles which helps to provide on time help to the injured persons & saves human life. In current situation low cost life saving device is need of our society. This paper deals with the design & development of the low cost-life saving device. This paper also comprises the scenario when any vehicle meet an accidents within certain speed limit then how the intelligent life saving device will work & save the life's. Further it explains the type of life saving device design, logical programming and system packaging. The system has been…
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Investigation of Transmissibility of an all-terrain vehicle with spring and damper tuning.

ARAI Academy-Rajat Girish Kanade, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2423
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The application in ride and handling development has been mostly subjective or intuitive. Suspension settings are based on the opinions of experts. The product of this research will enable to quantify the performance of a suspension in terms of its ability to minimize the transmission of road irregularities to the chassis and achieve good mechanical grip with the road surface. This work presents a dynamical analysis of the transmissibility of an off-road vehicle suspension, developed in VIT Vellore for Baja SAE India competition. A baseline spring rates curve for ride is developed to provide a solid foundation to tune from. The shock absorbers used for testing are Fox Float Evol R air shock absorbers with progressive damping. A thorough data acquisition of the force curves for shocks from a test rig is done. A detailed characteristic of the air shocks is obtained at various loading conditions. The basic damping curve is modified towards the desired ideal nature with the data obtained. The speculated optimum setting is validated on the ATV vehicle with ultrasonic sensors and…