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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of A Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition evolution, factory environmental conditions…
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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Accounting thermal exchanges in Coanda effect

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
Universidade Da Beira Interior-Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0026
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Modeling Coandã effect has been a fundamental issue in fluid dynamic research in the XX century. It has lost some interest because of the improvement in CFD, even if it could be still important in the area of the preliminary design of aerodynamic devices that benefits of fluid deflection by convex surfaces. An effective model of Coandã effect has not been defined, and fundamental questions are still open. One of the problems which affect many practical cases, but it is still marginally approached by scientific literature, is the influence of convective heat exchange on Coandã adhesion of a fluid stream on a convex surface in the presence of a temperature gradient between the fluid and the convex surface. This paper aims to start an effective research direction on the effects of convective heat exchange on Coandã effect. It approaches the problem with a set of CFD simulations. It analyses the previous hypotheses, which are based on Prandtl number and evidences the need of a more effective model that account also Reynolds number.
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A Study on the development of Aerostructures Design for Assembly guidelines and their effective use to proactively identify opportunities for improvement in mitigating common defects of the Aerostructures Assembly.

GITAM School of Technology, Hyderabad-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0009
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Aircraft’s assembly process plays a vital part in its design, development and production phases and contributes to about half of the Total cost spent in its entire product lifecycle. DFA principles have been one of the proven effective methodologies in Automotive and Process industries. Use of DFA principles have resulted in proactively simplifying and optimizing engineering designs with reduced product costs, and improved inefficiencies in product design and performance. Standardization of Assembly guidelines is vital for “Design and Build” and “Build-To-Print” manufacturing supplier organizations. However, Standardizing design methodologies, through use of proven tools like Advanced Product Quality Planning, (APQP) are still in the initial stages in Aerospace part and process design processes. Thus, there is a tremendous opportunity for research on the application of the existing DFA guidelines to optimize Engineering Aerospace Assembly processes aiming to simplify, standardize design methodologies by building on existing industry practices which have a common platform for design communication and are easy to adopt within the existing process/systems. This technical paper is to discuss the framework for application of…
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Delivery of Mixed Reality Tools Training in the Modern Production Environment

Boeing Co.-Mark Friesen, Lorrie Sivich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0052
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the early development of Mixed Reality (MR) technologies for the gaming industry, Boeing Research and Technology has been a leader in applying the technology to the production environment. Mixed Reality technologies have matured in size reduction and cost enabling a wide variety of visualization tools into the factory today. They include: tablets, Microsoft’s HoloLens, Google Glasses, Vive, and Oculus to name a few. These digital productivity tools allow the factory worker to perform work through installation, quality inspection, and trouble shooting.
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Developing High-Performance Motorcycle Oils

Maxima Racing Oils, Kawasaki Motors Corp. USA-Mike Marcella, Aaron Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0505
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Published motorcycle lubricant research often focuses on developments to meet certain specifications, regulatory requirements, or a combination of the two. Seemingly missing from the literature is research where the primary goal is development of a lubricant that enables maximum torque, power and acceleration from a machine for the purpose of winning races. The present study combines the two areas of research, where a high-performance motorcycle engine oil platform is developed to be used in competition, while simultaneously meeting the necessary regulations and specifications to be useful for commuters and leisure riders alike. Well-known are the demands on a motorcycle oil, which must lubricate and protect the crankcase, clutch and gears, all of which have competing requirements such that a strategy to improve the performance in one area can cause a detriment in another. Formulating for racing engines that are typically much more powerful than production versions further exacerbates these dichotomies, where the traditional strategies for gaining power through the lubricant of reducing viscosity or adding friction-reducing chemistries can leave the clutch and gears open to…
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Optimum Design of an Assist Mechanism for a Motorcycle Multi-Plate Clutch

EXEDY Corporation-Misaki Minoha, Koji Yoneyama, Ryoichi Imai, Hidenori Kitazawa, Osamu Mano, Shinya Miyagawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0523
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the popularity of leisure-motivated large motorcycles has increased as the demand for high-added value motorcycles is growing. Therefore, large motorcycle engines have become more powerful. Due to this trend, the capacity of the clutch is also required to increase. Contrary to the demand for high engine power and high clutch capacity, reductions in weight, space, operational load, and shock at deceleration are permanent issues of motorcycle development. The consideration of all these issues are required during development of a clutch for large motorcycles. Considering the above issues, a clutch with an assist cam and slipper cam mechanism is effective for cost and performance. The assist cam mechanism allows the clutch to have a larger transmittable torque without an increase of the clutch lever load. The slipper cam mechanism can automatically reduce the transmitted torque when shock from sudden engine braking happens during downshifting. Therefore, the installation of the clutch with cam mechanism on large motorcycles is becoming standard in the motorcycle industry. Regarding smaller motorcycles, the reduction of the number of clutch…
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Aircraft Engine Technology Review - The Pathways for an Efficient, Cleaner and Quieter Aviation Industry

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0175
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry has been submitted to a set of environmental and commercial drivers that have led it to pursue engine technologies focused on the efficiency improvement, greenhouse (CO2) and pollutant (NOx and PM) emissions reductions, as well as noise abatement.The effort to comply with the ambitious long term environmental and efficiency targets set by the regulatory authorities has driven the aeronautic industry in a technological research effort. In the medium term, the aviation industry's strategy for commercial aviation is to focus on the advanced, but rather conventional propulsion systems (mainly turbofan engines). In this scenario, technological efforts have focused basically on enhancing thermal efficiency, through advanced core engines, as well as improving propulsive efficiency, through the use of low pressure systems (basically reduced pressure ratio and increased engine bypass ratio). To reach these objectives, a set of technological platforms has been proposed, with some already on an operational/commercial level, while others still in a prototype category. In this context, engine manufacturers have given a special focus on some technological approaches, like Ultra High Bypass…
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Ignition Switch Material Definition to Avoid Hard to Start Issue

Ford Motor Company-Júlio Magalhães, Douglas Demori, Rosiane Viegas, Bruno Freitas
Huf Hülsbeck & Fürst-Michel Turbiani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0138
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, develop and launch a new product in the market is hard to every company. When we talk about a launch new vehicle to the customers, this task could be considered more difficult than other products whether imagine how fast the technology should be integrated to vehicle. There are main pillars to be considered in this scenario: low cost, design, innovation, competitiveness and safety. Whereas Brazilian economic scenario, all OEM has to be aware to opportunity to make the product profitable and keep acceptable quality. This combination between low cost and quality could be broken or not distributed equally between the pillars. Based on that, in some cases could have a quality broken that will affect directly the customer. This paper will focus on project to define of the new ignition switch, when the main challenge to achieve the cost reduction target was defined to change a material to electrical terminals. Beyond the material definition, we will discuss about the validation in component level and VOW, quality indicators (internal and external), prevent reoccurrences actions and…
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More than a brake

Robert Bosch Ltda – Chassis Systems Control Unit-Emerson Batagini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0020
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The automotive world is battling every day to provide innovation and product development without compromising the environment. The electrification of the engines can be a factor that divides eras into the market. The conventional brake system links the act of apply the brake pedal with the stop or deceleration of the vehicle. This is now possible thanks to the long-term use of the vacuum generated by the combustion engine or by auxiliary equipment (vacuum pump). New brake system technologies provides, without a vacuum source, more efficient and safer braking than the current power brake system. Embedded in technological developments, these systems interacts with other vehicle components (cameras, radars, ABS, ESC) bringing the driver advanced safety conditions.
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