Your Selections

Pedestrian safety
Show Only Newly Added Content My Access Full Text Content


Complimentary Content
Journal Articles Magazine Articles Open Access TBMG Articles Tech Insights White Papers

File Formats

HTML (88) PDF (88)

Content Types

Technical Paper (68) Journal Article (16) Ground Vehicle Standard (6) US Federal Regulations (5) Magazine Issue (3) Magazine Article (2) Magazine Feature Article (1) Progress In Technology (PT) (1)



Automotive (94) Commercial Vehicle (6)


Pedestrian safety (102) Safety (102) Bodies and Structures (36) Human Factors and Ergonomics (25) Vehicles and Performance (23) Crashes (22) Design Engineering and Styling (22) Exteriors (22) Vehicles (20) Electrical, Electronics, and Avionics (18) Driver Assistance systems (15) Injuries (15) Safety testing and procedures (15) Body structures (14) Pedestrian injuries (14) Age groups (12) Exterior lighting (12) Adults (11) Collision avoidance systems (11) Tests and Testing (11) Hoods (10) Noise (10) Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (10) Bumpers, fasciae and grilles (9) Electric vehicles (8) Simulation and modeling (8) Test procedures (8) Active safety systems (7) Kinematics (7) Materials (7) Visibility (7) Analysis methodologies (6) Buses (6) Crash research (6) Management and Organization (6) Finite element analysis (5) Hybrid electric vehicles (5) Power and Propulsion (5) Vehicle drivers (5) Vehicle occupants (5) Accident reconstruction (4) Anthropometric test devices (4) Architecture (4) Autonomous vehicles (4) Engines (4) Exterior noise (4) Impact tests (4) Optics (4) Reaction and response times (4) Safety regulations and standards (4)


Chen, Yaobin (6) Chien, Stanley (6) Sherony, Rini (6) Okabe, Tomosaburo (4) Pal, Chinmoy (4) Takahashi, Hiroyuki (4) Yi, Qiang (4) Manoharan, Jeyabharath (3) Vimalathithan, Kulothungan (3) Yadav, Kamlesh (3) Asaoka, Kazuya (2) Brink, Jason (2) Chen, Qiang (2) Ferrer, Adria (2) Good, David (2) Hayashi, Ryuzo (2) Higuchi, Kazunori (2) Hiratsuka, Shigeyoshi (2) Khurana, Rajdeep Singh (2) Kojima, Shinichi (2) Kutty, Krishnan (2) Li, Lingxi (2) Masuda, Sho (2) Nagai, Masao (2) Nakashima, Kazuhiko (2) Niu, Wensen (2) Pauer, Gernot (2) Shimaoka, Keiichi (2) Shinada, Munenori (2) Shiraki, Nobuyuki (2) Sinha, Abhishek (2) Tsukada, Toshihiko (2) Vaidya, Vinay (2) Watzenig, Daniel (2) Abhishek, Kumar (1) Almutairi, Mohammad (1) Ando, Mitsuhiro (1) Aoyagi, Soichiro (1) Asada, Hiroyuki (1) Asanuma, Hiroyuki (1) Attalla, Shady (1) Augy, Sylvain (1) Barshinger, Daniel (1) Bartlett, Wade D. (1) Behera, Reena Kumari (1) Beillas, Philippe (1) Bobba, Somasekhar (1) Bostrom, Ola (1) Bours, Roy C. H. (1) Brach, Raymond M. (1)


SAE (80) ARAI (8) GPO (5) SAGE (3) NHTSA (2) STAPP (2) JSAE (1) TBMG (1)


Toyota Motor Corporation (7) Indiana University Purdue University (4) TEMA (4) BMW Group (3) RNTBCI (3) Altran Concept Tech GmbH (2) CATARC (2) General Motors Co. (2) General Motors LLC (2) Honda R&D Americas (2) Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd. (2) Nissan (2) Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (2) Toyota Motor Engineering & Mfg NA Inc. (2) Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd. (1) Akita Prefectural University (1) Applus + Idiada Spain (1) Applus Idiada (1) Applus IDIADA Group (1) Armstrong Forensic Engineers Inc. (1) Autoliv China Technical Center (1) Autoliv Inc (1) Autoliv Research (1) Brano a.s. (1) Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt) (1) Cardiff Univ. (1) Chiba Institute of Technology (1) (1) CREST, KPIT Technologies Ltd. (1) Delta-V Experts (1) Denis Wood Associates Denis Wood Associates and Trinity College Trinity College (1) DENSO Corporation (1) ESI, University of Notre Dame (1) FEV Europe GmbH (1) FEV North America, Inc (1) FEV North America, Inc. (1) Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (1) fka mbH Aachen (1) GE INDIA TECHNOLOGY CENTER LTD (1) GE India Technology Center Pvt, Ltd. (1) General Motors Company (1) General Motors Technical Center India (1) General Motors Technical Centre India Pvt., Ltd. (1) Grant Johnston Consulting Engineers (1) Graz University of Technology (1) Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (1) Hyundai America Technical Center (1) Hyundai Kia R&D (1) Hyundai Motor Group (1) IAV GmbH (1)


Safety and Human Factors Standards Steering Committee (2) Active Safety Systems Standards Committee (1) DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) Tech Cmte (1) Event Data Recorder Committee (1) Snowmobile Technical Committee (1)


SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (15) SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition (9) SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition (9) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (6) SAE 2012 World Congress & Exhibition (5) International Mobility Conference (4) SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition (4) Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2013 (4) 16th Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference (3) Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2015 (3) 57th Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) 9th International Styrian Noise, Vibration & Harshness Congress: The European Automotive Noise Conference (2) International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (2) Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition (2) WCX World Congress Experience (2) 18th Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference (1) 21st SAE Brasil International Congress and Exhibition (1) 24th SAE Brasil International Congress and Display (1) 7th International Styrian Noise, Vibration & Harshness Congress: The European Automotive Noise Conference (1) Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference (1) SAE-TONGJI 2016 Driving Technology of Intelligent Vehicle Symposium (1) The 10th International Conference on Automotive Engineering (1) WCX: SAE World Congress Experience (1)


MOMENTUM The Magazine for Student Members of SAE International® (1) Truck & Off-Highway Engineering™ (1)

Driver perception-response time to midblock crossing pedestrians

  • University of Guelph - Ryan Toxopeus
  • Kodsi Engineering - Shady Attalla, Sam Kodsi
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-0514
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Motor vehicles kill pedestrians daily, and there has been a twelve percent increase in fatal crashes in the USA from 2006 to 2015. Although research exists on the perception-response time (PRT) of drivers to some types of path intrusions, data on the perception-response of through drivers to jaywalking pedestrians has not been determined. The purpose of this work was to quantify driver PRT to a pedestrian that intrudes perpendicularly into the path of a vehicle from the far curb. 49 (NFemale=24; NMale=25) licensed volunteer drivers took part in a study at the University of Guelph Driving Research in Virtual Environments (DRiVE) lab using an Oktal complete vehicle driving simulator. After a brief practice drive to acclimatize to the virtual environment, participants completed the approximately 10 minute experiment drive during which the pedestrian hazard was presented. Only eight percent of drivers collided with the pedestrian with a mean time-to-impact of 4.35 seconds. There were no gender differences in terms of PRT or collision rate.

Virtual development of a robust FlexPLI impactor surrogate, for sensor tests at high impact speeds at different temperatures

  • Altran Concept Tech GmbH - Gernot Pauer, Taja Svetina
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1050
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In order to tune the parameters of algorithms that are used for activation of deployable pedestrian protection safety systems, quite a number of impact tests have to be performed on real vehicles. The impactors used for these purposes comprise misuse-objects, hardest-to-detect pedestrian impactors, but also impactors that represent larger pedestrians, such as the WG17 legform or the FlexPLI. The usage of a complex impactor, as the FlexPLI, for sensor testing purposes has some drawbacks though. As these tests are performed with impact speeds of up to 55 kph and at ambient temperatures between -35°C and 90°C, there is a high risk of damage of the impactor. It also requires additional calibration procedures after such test series or an exchange of parts (e.g. ligaments) after each test, which is not practical for sensor tests. Therefore, we decided to develop an impactor surrogate that correctly represents the impact properties of the FlexPLI for sensor testing, but being much more robust and also suited for higher impact speeds of up to 55 kph! The relevant properties of the…

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An approach using augmented reality

  • Virtual Vehicle & Graz University - Michael Hartmann
  • KU Leuven & Member of Flanders Make - Marco Viehweger
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1053
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behavior caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure. Currently, driving situations with pedestrians are often tested in observational statistical studies rather than in randomized control experiments, due to safety reasons. This has an enormous impact on the development of motion planning strategies (conservative configuration) in autonomous vehicles and the usage for real scenarios (low generalizability, some as- pects are not tested, i.e. intention, environmental aspects). Some facts are revisited to propose the new test concept: 1.…

Electric Vehicle Detectability: a Methods-Based Approach to Assess Artificial Noise Impact on the Ability of Pedestrians to Safely Detect Approaching Electric Vehicles

  • Virginia Tech. - Michael Roan
  • Virginia Tech Transportation Institute - M. Lucas Neurauter
  • Show More
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1762
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States

Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle. The primary results examined the distances at which subjects detected each oncoming vehicle and the corresponding acoustical measurements upon detection. Vehicle approach scenarios included two levels of steady-state speed: 10 kph and 20kph. Participants were seated on a closed-test track, and asked to identify auditory detection of each oncoming vehicle within the presence of continuous, spatially distributed, spectrally shaped noise at 55dBA and 60dBA. The spectrum of the noise matched that of typical average urban background noise. . The acoustic data was collected using measurement grade microphones positioned directly above each participant’s head. Findings suggest that although mean detection distances trend higher for vehicles with an additive noise component, they aren’t significantly different from the traditional EV at speeds of 10kph. Moreover, all EV/HVs were detected at significantly shorter distances relative to the ICE vehicle when traveling at 10kph. At 20kph these differences become nearly indistinguishable.

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Exterior Noise for Pedestrian Safety and Sound Quality

  • FEV North America, Inc. - Todd Tousignant
  • FEV North America, Inc - Kiran Govindswamy
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-01-1889
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States

The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability. This has created potential challenges for automakers to meet the anticipated regulatory requirements while maintaining a high level of sound quality for both exterior and interior noise.

Active Safety Pedestrian Test Mannequin Recommendation

  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3116_201706
  • Current
Published 2017-06-01 by SAE International in United States

The goal of the Pedestrian Test Mannequin Task Force is to develop standard specifications/requirements for pedestrian test mannequins (1 adult and 1 child) that are representative of real pedestrians to the sensors used in Pedestrian Detection systems and can be used for performance assessment of such in-vehicle systems (including warning and/or braking) in real world test scenarios/conditions. This version of the document only includes the pedestrian mannequin for vision, Lidar, and/or 76 to 78 GHz radar based Pedestrian Pre-collision systems.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2017

  • Magazine Issue
  • 17TOFHP04
Published 2017-04-06 by SAE International in United States
Connectivity continues its advance More OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers are focusing on embedded telematic systems, hoping to displace aftermarket hardware.Tailoring fuel injection to control NOx The next big step to help heavy-duty diesel engines meet stricter emissions regulations involves adapting the fuel-injection system to the combustion needs.Active on safety Crash-avoidance technologies are vital "building blocks" to automate commercial vehicles, implement truck platooning and ultimately achieve zero accidents.Engineering with simulation and data Companies are discovering new simulation techniques, especially optimization; the next step is to combine simulation with sensor data and predictive analytics to create even more robust off-highway equipment.Bright lights, bright outlookFaurecia targets NOx reduction at lower exhaust temps with lightweight cartridgesMilitary system designers aren't resting on COTS deploymentReal-time manipulator position sensing for automation of hydraulic excavatorst ConExpo, Isuzu Motors announces heavy-duty natural gas engine for off-highwayInternational develops new, lighter A26 engine to replace N13Sharpening the focus on OBD-II securityAVL's Dr. Marko Dekena: Alternative powertrain tech, connectivity hot topics at ICPC 2017Case unveils compact dozer loader concept at ConExpoWork trucks strive to curtail addiction…


  • Bill Visnic, Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 17TOFHP04_03
Published 2017-04-01 by SAE International in United States

Crash-avoidance technologies are vital “building blocks” to automate commercial vehicles, implement truck platooning and ultimately achieve zero accidents.

Preco Electronics invented the vehicle backup alarm in 1962 and now seeks to set a similar safety milestone with the PreView Side Defender technology the company showcased at the ConExpo 2017 trade exposition in Las Vegas. The company calls the radar-based side-collision avoidance system “the industry's most-advanced side-object detection solution.”

Novel Approach in Vehicle Front-End Modeling for Numerical Analyses of Pedestrian Impact Scenarios

  • University of West Bohemia - Jan Vychytil, Jan Spicka, Ludek Hyncik
  • Mecas ESI s.r.o. - Jaroslav Manas
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States

In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario. VIRTHUMAN model of a 13-year-old boy (150 cm, 40 kg) is chosen to represent the pedestrian and the lateral impact at 45 km/h is considered for various initial positions of pedestrian. While local deformation of the MBS bonnet leads to the HIC value corresponding to the EuroNCAP assessment, prediction obtained in the case of FE model may differ. This reflects the fact that deformation of the bonnet caused by an impact of the torso may influence the shape and the stiffness of the bonnet at the location of head strike.

Validation of Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) Foam Material Models for Low Speed Bumper and Pedestrian Protection Applications

  • General Motors Technical Center India - Karthik Ramaswamy
  • General Motors LLC - Vinay L. Virupaksha, Jeanne Polan
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States

Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) foams are most commonly used in automotive applications for pedestrian protection and to meet low speed bumper regulatory requirements. In today’s automotive world the design of vehicles is predominantly driven by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). This makes it necessary to have a validated material model for EPP foams in order to simulate and predict performance under various loading conditions. Since most of the automotive OEMs depend on local material suppliers for their global vehicle applications it is necessary to understand the variation in mechanical properties of the EPP foams and its effect on performance predictions.