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Pedestrian Collision Avoidance System for Autonomous Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Virtual Vehicle Research Center and Graz University of Technology, Austria-Daniel Watzenig
Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria-Markus Schratter, Michael Hartmann
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0021
Published 2019-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are state of the art in modern vehicles (SAE level 1-2). They support the driver and improve thereby the vehicle safety during manual driving. In critical situations, collision avoidance systems warn the driver or trigger an autonomous emergency braking maneuver to mitigate or avoid a collision. Also, automated driving vehicles (SAE level 3+) must be able to avoid critical situations and must be more capable than currently available systems. During automated driving, the vehicle is responsible for the driving task instead of the driver. Therefore, safe automated driving requires robust algorithms to avoid collisions with other traffic participants in every situation, especially in critical situations with pedestrians and a limited perception ability. In this work, we investigate how automated driving vehicles can handle critical situations with pedestrians on multilane roads with an emergency braking or evasion maneuver. We focus in detail on very critical situations, where pedestrians are crossing behind an occluded area, e.g. from behind a parked car on the side of the road. In these critical situations, a…
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Mass Optimized Hood Design for Conflicting Performances

General Motors Technical Center-Santosh Swamy, Shivakumar Chidanandappa
University of Agder, Norway-Gulshan Noorsumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2546
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Passenger vehicles have stringent safety regulations for pedestrian protection to meet child and adult head impact requirements to minimize injuries. These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with stiffness and durability performance criteria, which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. There is a growing need for performance balancing to meet both these loadcases. This paper uses Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to achieve optimized performance for stiffness, durability and pedestrian safety.The current study describes an approach that helps reduce time and efforts needed to resolve performance issues between both stiffness/durability and Pedestrian safety requirements. This approach not only helps find a feasible cross-functional solution but also provides an opportunity to reduce the overall development cycle time and mass whenever possible. It also demonstrates the importance of shapes and dimensions of slots on the inner panel as variables. The slots on inner panel and palm reinforcement are observed to be most sensitive, whereas thicknesses of inner panel, palm and latch reinforcement are the most sensitive size variables. It also involves using a reduced content…
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Electronic Travelling Kit for Navigation of Visually Challenged Individuals

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Rajarajeswari Rathinam, Suchitra Dayalan, Harris Mathews
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Navigation of visually challenged persons is found tough, as they frequently do not get the essential details for escaping the perils and risk they come across when they want to reach a destination. Modernization of the world leads to the usage of technologically equipped devices to make compact and cost-effective setup. In order to help the visually impaired person to navigate securely swiftly an impediment identification system employing techno equipment such as Ultrasonic Sensors (US) and Universal Serial camera-based visual navigation system is proposed. The proposed framework identifies obstruction via the US and transmits audio signals as feedback to guide the individual about the location to be reached. Moreover, for capturing the location where the person has to move a universal serial bus (USB) webcam is employed. USB webcam is also deployed to distinguish between a human and an obstacle. In order to identify the persons well known to the visually challenged and also the presence of other human movements a face recognition system using image processing is adopted in the proposed system. The General…
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Performance Assessment of Pyramidal Lattice Core Sandwich Engine Hood for Pedestrian Safety

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Anish Jafrin Thilak Johnson
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Road accidents are increasing now-a-days, Safety of pedestrian is the great concern. In average, 10% of urban pedestrian accidents are fatal. Statistics show that the impact on front side of cars is the major cause of pedestrian deaths (83.5%). The function of a vehicle’s engine hood is to keep its engine covered and allow access to the engine compartment as required for maintenance and repair. The hood structure not only protects the engine cavity, but also keeps pedestrians away from the parts of that cavity. The absorption capability and stiffness of hood structures are the key points considered when designing a vehicle’s hood. The impact of the pedestrian head on automotive hood results in major injuries and sometimes in death. Conventional engine hood results in greater Head Injury Criterion (HIC) values. GFRP pyramidal lattice core structures are used in automobiles which is used for good energy absorption. GFRP pyramidal lattice core sandwich engine hood absorbs impact energy rather than transmitting it to the head. This will minimize the severity rate of injury of pedestrian during…
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Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

Ohio State University-Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Sheng Zhu, Gokul Arvind Anantharaman, Bilin Aksun Guvenc, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles. It leverages the Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication technology to create a real-time implementable collision avoidance algorithm along with decision-making for a vehicle that communicates with other vehicles. Four distinct collision risk environments are…
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Real Time 2D Pose Estimation for Pedestrian Path Estimation Using GPU Computing

Oakland University-Karam Abughalieh, Shadi Alawneh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Future fully autonomous and partially autonomous cars equipped with Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) should assure safety for the pedestrian. One of the critical tasks is to determine if the pedestrian is crossing the road in the path of the ego-vehicle, in order to issue the required alerts for the driver or even safety breaking action. In this paper, we investigate the use of 2D pose estimators to determine the direction and speed of the pedestrian crossing the road in front of a vehicle. Pose estimation of body parts, such as right eye, left knee, right foot, etc… is used for determining the pedestrian orientation while tracking these key points between frames is used to determine the pedestrian speed. The pedestrian orientation and speed are the two required elements for the basic path estimation. High Performance Computing (HPC) has recently been considerably improved, for instance GPU Computing has been developed to solve complex problems and transform the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) into a massively parallel processor. To enhance the performance of our pose estimator we…
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An Improved Multi-Pedestrian Tracking System Based on Deep Neural Network

Northeastern University-Yuan Gong, Jianning Chi, Xiaosheng Yu, Chengdong Wu, Yifei Zhang, Na Gao
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The intelligent vehicle driverless technology has become a very hot topic in the past two decades. To solve the road safety problem, which is one of the most important factors inhibiting the development of intelligent vehicle technology, the multi-target tracking system has attracted more and more attention in recent study since it can detect and track multiple objects in traffic scene so as to help the whole driving system plan the safe route. In this work, a novel multi-pedestrian tracking system based on deep neural network is proposed to improve the tracking efficiency while providing high recognition accuracy. The proposed tracking system consists of two parts: 1) pedestrian detector, and 2) pedestrian tracker. For the detector part, we first transform the image convolution operation in spatial-temporal domain to the coefficient product operation in complex frequency domain, and then replace the maximum pooling and mean pooling operation in the traditional SSD detection network by the proposed product operation, and the modified SSD model is used as the pedestrian detector. For the tracker part, we train a…
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Active Safety Bicyclist Test Targets Recommendation

Active Safety Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3157_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-06 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the Bicyclist Test Mannequin Task Force is to develop standard specifications/requirements for bicyclist test mannequins (one adult and one child) that are representative of real bicyclists to the sensors used in Bicyclist Detection systems and can be used for performance assessment of such in-vehicle systems (including warning and/or braking) in real world test scenarios/conditions. This version of the document only includes the recommended bicyclist mannequin characteristics for vision, Lidar, and/or 76 to 78 GHz radar-based Bicyclist Pre-Collision systems.
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Video-Recorded “Looked-but-Failed-to-See” (LBFTS) Accidents in the Junctions of Hong Kong

Hong Kong Government Laboratory-Yuk Ki Cheng, Cheok Ning Tam, Chi Hang Tao, Cheuk Nam Tsang
Published 2019-01-18 by SAE International in United States
To determine causation and contributory factors of “looked-but-failed-to-see” (LBFTS) junction accidents in which the driver stated that “I did not see the pedestrian,” in-depth studies of 22 such accidents which had taken place in Hong Kong were conducted. The studied crashes were all video recorded by closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and/or dashboard cameras. Using the video recordings, these junction accidents were reconstructed at the scenes to determine the drivers’ views of the pedestrians and the sequence of events leading up to each accident. The results of the reconstructions and the police investigations, as well as the testimony of the drivers, were analyzed to identify causation and contributing factors of each accident. Attention error/visual search strategy (41%) and misjudgments of drivers (18%) remain the dominant cause of LBFTS crashes. However, it was found that eight crashes (36%) were attributed to the physical obstructions caused by the A-pillars of the vehicles, with the obscuration of the pedestrians being the major contributory factor. This study shows that reconstructions based on video recordings can provide detailed accounts of junction…
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Styling and Packaging Approach to Meet Pedestrian Upper Leg Requirements as per Euro NCAP Protocol

Tata Motors Limited-Dnyaneshwar Mhaskar, Ashish Kumar Mahapatre, Milind Bhagat
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In most of the countries all over the world, thousands of pedestrians and vulnerable road users are struck by motor vehicles and getting killed or get severe injuries. Accident research data shows that pedestrians are a significant proportion of all road user casualties [1]. In pedestrian impact with vehicle front end, several organ forms impact directly to front end of the vehicles and get severe injuries in head, lower leg and pelvis region. Pelvis region of pedestrian get severe injuries due to hit by Bonnet Leading Edge. Impact force is major injury driving parameter in case of pelvis region. In earlier Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v7.1.1 [2], upper leg impact energy calculation was based on BLE (Bonnet Leading Edge) height and bumper lead. Vehicle front end styling was not playing any role in deciding upper leg impact energy. Upper leg impact performance was purely dependent on BLE height and package space available. Whereas in current Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v8.4 [3], upper leg impact energy calculation is estimated based on vehicle front end styling and…
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