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Comprehensive Study on Crashes with Pedestrians on Indian Roads

  • Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solutions Pvt Ltd-Girikumar Kumaresh
  • Robert Bosch GmbH-Moennich Joerg, Thomas Lich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0004
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrian crashes are a major safety concern worldwide and especially in India. About one in every ten traffic-related fatalities in the country is a pedestrian. In 2016 nearly 15 800 pedestrians are killed in India are mainly exposed to risk when crossing and walking on the road in urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to understand the pedestrian behavior on the road and to identify characteristics of pedestrian crashes in India. Overall it was aimed to derive countermeasures out from accident contributing factors to improve traffic safety in India. Bosch Accident Research access the accident database of the Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). The present analysis is based on 1779 in-depth accident investigated and reconstructed cases from RASSI. Overall 168 crashes involving 207 pedestrians were analyzed and simulated afterwards. Five different locations involving majorly rural, urban & semi urban areas covered. As a result, every second pedestrian accident occurred while walking and crossing the road straight, and nearly 12% of crashes occurred while the pedestrian was standing in road.…

Physical and Virtual Testing Synergic Approach to ADAS Radar Performance Verification and Optimization

  • Ingegneria dei Sistemi S p A-Mauro Bandinelli, Antonio Guidoni, Mirko Bercigli, Giacomo DeMauro
  • Siemens Industry Software-Koen De Langhe, Steven Dom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0024
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Radars based ADAS solutions are growing at a substantial rate in the automotive market since they play a fundamental role in increasing passengers and pedestrian safety. To meet the stringent vehicle safety norms and to reduce time and design costs, more effective and efficient industrial approach have to be devised both in terms of simulation (working at 77 GHz poses several numerical challenges) and testing. Automotive radar are always installed behind a bumper/grid. The bumper/grip, to a certain extent, can be considered as a radome and, as in avionic application, the radar antenna performance have to be evaluated accounting for its effects: shape, electromagnetic properties of materials, thickness, reflection and transmission coefficient at typical incidence angles in standard operational conditions may degrade the radar performance (detection range, direction of arrival etc). Numerical modelling (i.e. virtual testing) allows the creation of digital twins, the analysis of many configurations, the exploration of the design space and the identification of trade off solutions to optimize performance, but the final verification (especially when considering the whole radar performance, both…

Styling Approach to Meet Pedestrian Upper Leg Requirements as per Euro NCAP Protocol

  • Tata Motors Limited-Dnyaneshwar Mhaskar, Ashish Kumar Mahapatre, Milind Bhagat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0007
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
In most of the countries all over the world, thousands of pedestrians and vulnerable road users are struck by motor vehicles and getting killed or get severe injuries. Accident research data shows that pedestrians are a significant proportion of all road user casualties. In Pedestrian impact with vehicle front end, several organ form impacts directly to front end of the vehicles and gets severe injuries in head, lower leg and pelvis region. Pelvis region of Pedestrian gets severe injuries due to hit by Bonnet Leading Edge. Impact force is major injury driving parameter in case of pelvis region. In Pedestrian protocol of Euro NCAP of V7.0 release, upper leg impact energy calculation was based on Bonnet Leading Edge height & bumper lead. Vehicle front end styling was not playing any role in deciding Upper Leg Impact energy. Upper leg impact performance was purely dependent on Bonnet Leading Edge(BLE) height & package space available. Whereas in V8.0 Pedestrian Euro NCAP protocol release, Upper Leg Impact energy calculation is estimated based on vehicle evolution and real world…

An Analytical Approach To Derive Free Package Space Requirement for Pedestrian Head Form

  • Tata Motors, Ltd.-Pratap Daphal, Ashish Mahapatre
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0013
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Traffic accidents data shows a significant number of pedestrian fatalities globally. According to a survey of 35 European countries, pedestrians represented an average of 25% of all road user fatalities. In Japan, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 28% of the road toll and approximately 16% in Australia. These figures compare with 13% for the USA and 40-50% for India and Thailand (1). Various pedestrian safety requirements are mandated in different markets in recent years worldwide. For pedestrian head-form, vehicle front-end styling and the free package space below bonnet plays a vital role in deciding the pedestrian head-form safety performance. Currently during initial phase of vehicle development, the free package requirements is decided based on benchmark data. However, the benchmark data does not give any insight in physics involved and is subjective in nature as it varies from vehicle to vehicle. This paper is gives an analytical approach for defining the free package space requirements for meeting the targeted pedestrian head form performance. The analytically derived Head Injury Criteria Vs package space is also compared with physical…

Force Transmission Characteristics for a Loaded Structural-Acoustic Tire Model

  • Ford Motor Company, USA-Matthew Black
  • Purdue University, USA-Rui Cao, J. Stuart Bolton
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-04-0025
Published 2018-10-23 by SAE International in United States
Concerns about tire noise radiation arise partly from city traffic planning, environmental protection, and pedestrian safety standpoints, while from the vehicle passengers’ perspective, noise transmitted to the vehicle interior is more important. It is the latter concern that is addressed in this article. Sound-absorbing materials generally offer good absorption at higher frequencies, but the reduction of relatively low frequency, structure-borne tire noise is a continuing focus of many auto manufacturers. A tire’s internal, acoustic cavity resonance is a very strong contributing factor to tire-related structure-borne noise, and it can easily be perceived by passengers. Some reduction of vehicle cabin noise can be achieved through the insertion of sound-absorbing material in the tires. However, apart from the additional cost for such tires, there is also an increased complexity when repairing them because of the need to avoid damaging the sound-absorptive lining. In that light, modifying the design of the tire-rim and suspension system to decrease the cavity noise influence without the addition of sound-absorbing material has a clear benefit. To that end, a fully coupled, structural-acoustic…

Decade of Vision-Based Pedestrian Detection for Self-Driving: An Experimental Survey and Evaluation

  • Beijing University of Posts & Telecom-Yue Zhang, Yonggang Qi, Jun Liu
  • Shanghai International Automobile City-Yanyan Wang
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
With the steady progress in autonomous driving technology and the tremendous potential prospects for development, the topics about self-driving car have begun to return to the center stage of AI applications. Hence, lots of efforts are made on algorithms relevant to self-driving car itself. However, few shed the light on the problem of how to testify them thoroughly, therefore unified standards for autonomous driving and testing are urgently needed. To study this problem, we begin by pedestrian detection, for that the ability of locating humans is one of the most critical problems that should be concerned about for self-driving cars. In this paper, we investigate to perform a standard evaluation to qualify different methods and detectors under a more practical manner. Specifically, we investigate several commonly used evaluation methodologies for pedestrian detection, and find out that the Caltech pedestrian detection benchmark is the most popular. However, it’s still not suitable enough for the pedestrian detection problem in autonomous driving for not taking any emergency in practice into account. Besides, other benchmarks such as KITTI which…

See Objects Hidden Around Corners

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29743
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A driverless car is making its way through a winding neighborhood street, about to make a sharp turn onto a road where a child’s ball has just rolled. Although no person in the car can see that ball, the car stops to avoid it. This is because the car is outfitted with extremely sensitive laser technology that reflects off nearby objects to see around corners.

Concurrent Optimization of Ply Orientation and Thickness for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Laminated Engine Hood

  • SAIC Motor-Yuhang Gao
  • Tongji University-Yunkai Gao, Rui Qian, Yanan Xu, Chi Wu
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have gained particular interests due to their high specific modulus, high strength, lightweight and resistance to environment. In the automotive industry, numerous studies have been ongoing to replace the metal components with CFRP for the purpose of weight saving. One of the significant benefits of CFRP laminates is the ability of tailoring fiber orientation and ply thickness to meet the acceptable level of structural performance with little waste of material capability. This study focused on the concurrent optimization of ply orientation and thickness for CFRP laminated engine hood, which was based on the gradient-based discrete material and thickness optimization (DMTO) method. Two manufactural constraints, namely contiguity and intermediate void constraints, were taken into account in the optimization problem to reduce the potential risk of cracking matrix of CFRP. The design objective was the minimization of the mass of the CFRP hood subject to stiffness and eigenfrequency constraints under multiple load cases. To predict the pedestrian safety performance of the CFRP hood, the simulation of pedestrian head impact on the…

Virtual Development of a Robust FlexPLI Impactor Surrogate for Sensor Tests at High Impact Speeds at Different Temperatures

  • Altran Concept Tech GmbH-Gernot Pauer, Taja Svetina
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
For fine-tuning of the parameters of algorithms used for activation of deployable pedestrian protection safety systems, quite a number of impact tests have to be performed on real vehicles. The impactors used for these purposes comprise misuse-objects, hardest-to-detect pedestrian impactors, but also impactors that represent larger pedestrians, such as the WG17 legform or the FlexPLI. Such tests are performed with impact speeds up to 55 kph and at ambient temperatures between −35 °C and 90 °C. Especially for the more complex FlexPLI there is a high risk of damage to the impactor under such conditions. Additionally, the required calibration procedures after such test series and an obligatory exchange of parts (e.g. ligaments) after each test are a source for further costs.Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of an impactor surrogate that correctly represents all relevant impact properties of the FlexPLI for sensor testing, but being much more robust, offering the simplest possible structure and therefore being also suited for repeated tests with impact speeds of up to 55 kph, without the need for replacement…

Front Loading In-Vehicle Traffic Light Visibility Requirements for Driver as per Indian Road Standards

  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Published 2017-07-10 by SAE International in United States
Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection. Ensuring adequate in-vehicle visibility for drivers is important for their traffic awareness including, traffic light and road signs visibility etc. Setting target for…