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Decade of Vision-Based Pedestrian Detection for Self-Driving: An Experimental Survey and Evaluation

  • Beijing University of Posts & Telecom - Yue Zhang, Yonggang Qi, Jun Liu
  • Shanghai International Automobile City - Yanyan Wang
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
With the steady progress in autonomous driving technology and the tremendous potential prospects for development, the topics about self-driving car have begun to return to the center stage of AI applications. Hence, lots of efforts are made on algorithms relevant to self-driving car itself. However, few shed the light on the problem of how to testify them thoroughly, therefore unified standards for autonomous driving and testing are urgently needed. To study this problem, we begin by pedestrian detection, for that the ability of locating humans is one of the most critical problems that should be concerned about for self-driving cars. In this paper, we investigate to perform a standard evaluation to qualify different methods and detectors under a more practical manner. Specifically, we investigate several commonly used evaluation methodologies for pedestrian detection, and find out that the Caltech pedestrian detection benchmark is the most popular. However, it’s still not suitable enough for the pedestrian detection problem in autonomous driving for not taking any emergency in practice into account. Besides, other benchmarks such as KITTI which evaluates the PASCAL-style mean Average Precision are also very inspirational. Our contributions are four-folds in this paper: (i) Summarizing existing pedestrian arts, figure out the most convincing ones in the literature. (ii) Based on these most popular methods, we aim to propose a rational and unitary novel performance metrics tailor-made for evaluating the capacity of pedestrian detection for self-driving cars. (iii) Our testing standards take into account not only the general orientation of pedestrian detectors but also various practical application scenes. (iv) We also report the evaluation results of some promising pedestrian algorithms, to show the superiority of our testing standards.

See Objects Hidden Around Corners

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29743
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States
A driverless car is making its way through a winding neighborhood street, about to make a sharp turn onto a road where a child’s ball has just rolled. Although no person in the car can see that ball, the car stops to avoid it. This is because the car is outfitted with extremely sensitive laser technology that reflects off nearby objects to see around corners.

Concurrent Optimization of Ply Orientation and Thickness for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Laminated Engine Hood

  • SAIC Motor - Yuhang Gao
  • Tongji University - Yunkai Gao, Rui Qian, Yanan Xu, Chi Wu
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have gained particular interests due to their high specific modulus, high strength, lightweight and resistance to environment. In the automotive industry, numerous studies have been ongoing to replace the metal components with CFRP for the purpose of weight saving. One of the significant benefits of CFRP laminates is the ability of tailoring fiber orientation and ply thickness to meet the acceptable level of structural performance with little waste of material capability. This study focused on the concurrent optimization of ply orientation and thickness for CFRP laminated engine hood, which was based on the gradient-based discrete material and thickness optimization (DMTO) method. Two manufactural constraints, namely contiguity and intermediate void constraints, were taken into account in the optimization problem to reduce the potential risk of cracking matrix of CFRP. The design objective was the minimization of the mass of the CFRP hood subject to stiffness and eigenfrequency constraints under multiple load cases. To predict the pedestrian safety performance of the CFRP hood, the simulation of pedestrian head impact on the CFRP hood was carried out in terms of national standard of China. A prototype of the CFRP hood was fabricated by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and the experimental tests were then conducted to validate the numerical results of the optimum design. The results demonstrated that the framework of the concurrent optimization of the CFRP hood and the numerical analysis of pedestrian safety offers a pragmatic procedure for the achievement of lightweight design with CFRP materials.

Virtual Development of a Robust FlexPLI Impactor Surrogate for Sensor Tests at High Impact Speeds at Different Temperatures

  • Altran Concept Tech GmbH - Gernot Pauer, Taja Svetina
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
For fine-tuning of the parameters of algorithms used for activation of deployable pedestrian protection safety systems, quite a number of impact tests have to be performed on real vehicles. The impactors used for these purposes comprise misuse-objects, hardest-to-detect pedestrian impactors, but also impactors that represent larger pedestrians, such as the WG17 legform or the FlexPLI. Such tests are performed with impact speeds up to 55 kph and at ambient temperatures between −35 °C and 90 °C. Especially for the more complex FlexPLI there is a high risk of damage to the impactor under such conditions. Additionally, the required calibration procedures after such test series and an obligatory exchange of parts (e.g. ligaments) after each test are a source for further costs.

Front Loading In-Vehicle Traffic Light Visibility Requirements for Driver as per Indian Road Standards

  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. - Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Published 2017-07-10 by SAE International in United States
Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection. Ensuring adequate in-vehicle visibility for drivers is important for their traffic awareness including, traffic light and road signs visibility etc. Setting target for traffic light visibility/upward visibility is very crucial especially the front-end design including windshield rake angle, DGO, BCP width etc. largely depend on the set visibility targets. In this paper, factors influencing the traffic light for the driver with real world usage scenario explored and target front loading, virtual evaluation and validation of the traffic light visibility also explained.

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Exterior Noise for Pedestrian Safety and Sound Quality

  • FEV North America, Inc. - Todd Tousignant
  • FEV North America, Inc - Kiran Govindswamy
  • Show More
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability. This has created potential challenges for automakers to meet the anticipated regulatory requirements while maintaining a high level of sound quality for both exterior and interior noise.

Active Safety Pedestrian Test Mannequin Recommendation

  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3116_201706
  • Current
Published 2017-06-01 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the Pedestrian Test Mannequin Task Force is to develop standard specifications/requirements for pedestrian test mannequins (1 adult and 1 child) that are representative of real pedestrians to the sensors used in Pedestrian Detection systems and can be used for performance assessment of such in-vehicle systems (including warning and/or braking) in real world test scenarios/conditions. This version of the document only includes the pedestrian mannequin for vision, Lidar, and/or 76 to 78 GHz radar based Pedestrian Pre-collision systems.

Technology from Highly Automated Driving to Improve Active Pedestrian Protection Systems

  • Virtual Vehicle Research Center - Markus Schratter
  • BMW Group - Susie Cantu, Thomas Schaller
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Highly Automated Driving (HAD) opens up new middle-term perspectives in mobility and is currently one of the main goals in the development of future vehicles. The focus is the implementation of automated driving functions for structured environments, such as on the motorway. To achieve this goal, vehicles are equipped with additional technology. This technology should not only be used for a limited number of use cases. It should also be used to improve Active Safety Systems during normal non-automated driving.

Virtual Development Support of Active Bonnet Pedestrian Safety Systems by CAE/FE-Methods

  • Altran Concept Tech GmbH - Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Active bonnet safety systems are implemented into vehicles, to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements despite little available deformation space. For such systems it is necessary to consider a variety of aspects already from the very beginning of the vehicle design process and the functionality of the whole system needs to be continually cross-checked throughout the whole design process. Many of these aspects are already supported by finite element (FE) methods from vehicle manufacturers and in this paper it is shown, how the last missing links within the development process, the optimization of pedestrian detection sensor signals can also be efficiently supported by FE simulation. The modeling and validation of a pressure tube based sensor system and so called “misuse objects” are demonstrated. Exemplar simulated signal shapes are shown for a variety of impacts situations with different pedestrian dummy shapes, hardest-to-detect pedestrian test tools (PDI-2) and several misuse objects. Examples for the benefit of the virtual support of sensor integration and optimization are given but also the current limitations of this method and future development work in this area are addressed.

Lightweighting of an Automotive Front End Structure Considering Frontal NCAP and Pedestrian Lower Leg Impact Safety Requirements

  • Indian Institute of Science - Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb
  • Wayne State University - Clifford C. Chou
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, there may exist an optimum design solution, in terms of mass of front end structure, that meets both the requirements. In the current optimization problem definition, the peak deceleration extracted from the NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) crash pulse and the deceleration generated on a pedestrian legform are considered as constraint parameters. Assuming the gages of bumper beam, front rails, and bumper fascia as well as foam strength as design variables, the mass of the front end structure (i.e. effectively the total mass of the parts mentioned) of a previously validated Dodge Neon finite element model is optimized. Using the response surface method (RSM) and the design of experiment (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for the constraint parameters. Using the response surface equations and the design constraints, an optimum solution is then obtained by using a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm in MATLAB. It is noted the optimal solution gave a 9 kg reduction in the mass of the front end structure along with meeting the constraints imposed by crashworthiness performance in full frontal impact against a rigid barrier as in a US-NCAP test and pedestrian impact safety requirement according to EEVC/WG17 standard.