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A Design and Optimization Method for Pedestrian Lower Extremity Injury Analysis with the aPLI Model

Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.-Ruyi Chen
Chongqing University-Yue Fu, Huijie Xu, Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Ping Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0929
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As pedestrian protection tests and evaluations have been officially incorporated into new C-NCAP, more stringent requirements have been placed on pedestrian protection performance. In this study, in order to reduce the injury of the vehicle front end structure to the pedestrian's lower extremity during the collision, the advanced pedestrian legform impactor (aPLI) model was used in conjunction with the finite element vehicle model for collision simulation based on the new C-NCAP legform test evaluation regulation. This paper selected the key components which have significant influences on the pedestrian's leg protection performance based on the CAE vehicle model, including front bumper, front-cover plate, upper impact pillar, impact beam and lower support plate, to form a simplified model and conducted parametric modeling based on it. Then, the variable correlation analysis was carried out on the sample results obtained from the design of experiment (DOE), and the contribution analysis of design variables to the injury measures was discussed. The sample variables and responses were also used to construct the approximate models for further optimization studies. Taking the pedestrian…
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Does the Interaction between Vehicle Headlamps and Roadway Lighting Affect Visibility? A Study of Pedestrian and Object Contrast

Virginia Tech-Maury Nussbaum
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute-Rajaram Bhagavathula, Ron Gibbons
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0569
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle headlamps and roadway lighting are the major sources of illumination at night. These sources affect contrast - defined as the luminance difference of an object from its background - which drives visibility at night. However, the combined effect of vehicle headlamps and intersection lighting on object contrast has not been reported previously. In this study, the interactive effects of vehicle headlamps and overhead lighting on object contrast were explored based on earlier work that examined drivers’ visibility under three intersection lighting designs (illuminated approach, illuminated box, and illuminated approach + box). The goals of this study were to: 1) quantify object luminance and contrast as a function of a vehicle’s headlamps and its distance to an intersection using the three lighting designs; and, 2) to assess whether contrast influences visual performance and perceived visibility in a highly dynamic intersection environment. Both luminance and contrast of roadway visibility targets and a pedestrian were measured with a calibrated photometer at a realistic intersection. Both target and pedestrian contrast and luminance were substantially affected by the intersection…
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Source Noise Isolation during Electric Vehicle Pass-By Noise Testing Using Multiple Coherence

Bruel & Kjaer North America Inc.-Edward Green
Kettering University-Manuj Dindgur, Jennifer Bastiaan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1268
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the nearly silent operation of an electric motor, it is difficult for pedestrians to detect an approaching electric vehicle. To address this safety concern, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 141, “Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”. This FMVSS 141 standard requires the measurement of electric vehicle noise according to certain test protocols; however, performing these tests can be difficult since inconsistent results can occur in the presence of transient background noise. Methods to isolate background noise during static sound measurements have already been established, though these methods are not directly applicable to a pass-by noise test where neither the background noise nor the vehicle itself as it travels past the microphone produce stationary sound signals. In this work, a 2017 Chevrolet Bolt electric vehicle is used for physical testing of pass-by noise at the Kettering University GM Mobility Research Center (GMMRC), an inner-city proving ground in Flint, Michigan. Sound signal processing is performed using a multiple coherence approach including discrete time…

Optimization of Braking Strategy for Automatic Emergency Braking System in Vehicle-Pedestrian Accidents

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Shanghai University of Engineering Science, China-Yubin Qian, Xueyan Yang
State Administration for Market Regulation Defective Product Administrative Center, China-Lingyun Xiao
  • Journal Article
  • 07-12-02-0009
Published 2020-03-23 by SAE International in United States
Braking strategy is the core of the automatic emergency braking (AEB) system. How to make the braking strategy of the AEB system more suitable for real traffic conditions and more acceptable to drivers is a very important research. This article carries out the braking strategy optimization for the AEB system. From the vehicle-pedestrian accidents collected by the National Automobile Accident In-depth Investigation System (NAIS) of Songjiang Station, this article selects typical cases equipped with event data recorder (EDR) and then analyzes the EDR data. On this basis, the strategy for the optimization of the AEB system is formed. The optimized strategy is simulated in the test scenario specified in the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro-NCAP) and compared with the real vehicle test results. The result illustrates that the optimized braking strategy is more effective to avoid or mitigate collisions.

5 Ws of PAWS Smart Headphones

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36199
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Pedestrians who wear headphones or earbuds to listen to music, text, or talk on smartphones while walking, putting themselves at risk by tuning out the traffic around them.

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Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP02_01
Published 2020-01-01 by SAE International in United States

While engineers debate the use of thermal-imaging sensors for ADAS, their capability and value are being proven for AVs of all levels.

What specific sensor types will comprise the advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) of the 2020s? That's a controversial subject among engineers who are developing SAE Level 2 and 3 (and the so-called “L2+”) ADAS sensing suites for new vehicles. Many of them believe that visible-light cameras fused with radar will suffice to deliver the object-identification accuracy, redundancy-and cost effectiveness-that OEMs and the driving public expect of ADAS-equipped vehicles.

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Pedestrian Collision Avoidance System for Autonomous Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Virtual Vehicle Research Center and Graz University of Technology, Austria-Daniel Watzenig
Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria-Markus Schratter, Michael Hartmann
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0021
Published 2019-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are state of the art in modern vehicles (SAE level 1-2). They support the driver and improve thereby the vehicle safety during manual driving. In critical situations, collision avoidance systems warn the driver or trigger an autonomous emergency braking maneuver to mitigate or avoid a collision. Also, automated driving vehicles (SAE level 3+) must be able to avoid critical situations and must be more capable than currently available systems. During automated driving, the vehicle is responsible for the driving task instead of the driver. Therefore, safe automated driving requires robust algorithms to avoid collisions with other traffic participants in every situation, especially in critical situations with pedestrians and a limited perception ability. In this work, we investigate how automated driving vehicles can handle critical situations with pedestrians on multilane roads with an emergency braking or evasion maneuver. We focus in detail on very critical situations, where pedestrians are crossing behind an occluded area, e.g. from behind a parked car on the side of the road. In these critical situations, a…
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Performance Specifications for a Midsize Male Pedestrian Research Dummy

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2782_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-26 by SAE International in United States
While it is recognized that collisions involve pedestrians of all sizes, this Information Report addresses performance specifications for a midsize adult male research dummy. This approach stems from the greater knowledge of biomechanics and existing dummy technologies for the midsize male relative to other adult sizes and children. While not the initial objective, it is envisioned that additional performance specifications for other sizes of pedestrian research dummies will be developed in the future based on accepted scaling procedures. The specific requirements for the pedestrian dummy have been based on a collective assessment of pedestrian injury, response, and anthropometry priorities from the experimental, epidemiologic, and computational literature. In general, the objective was to specify performance specifications based on human characteristics and the impact response of post-mortem human subjects rather than to specify the design of a particular physical device. Based on the perceived applications for a research pedestrian dummy, the primary focus of this document centered on biofidelic whole-body kinematics during a vehicle-pedestrian impact. Specific body regions were prioritized (see A.1.5) based on a combination of…
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Mass Optimized Hood Design for Conflicting Performances

General Motors Technical Center-Santosh Swamy, Shivakumar Chidanandappa
University of Agder, Norway-Gulshan Noorsumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2546
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Passenger vehicles have stringent safety regulations for pedestrian protection to meet child and adult head impact requirements to minimize injuries. These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with stiffness and durability performance criteria, which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. There is a growing need for performance balancing to meet both these loadcases. This paper uses Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to achieve optimized performance for stiffness, durability and pedestrian safety.The current study describes an approach that helps reduce time and efforts needed to resolve performance issues between both stiffness/durability and Pedestrian safety requirements. This approach not only helps find a feasible cross-functional solution but also provides an opportunity to reduce the overall development cycle time and mass whenever possible. It also demonstrates the importance of shapes and dimensions of slots on the inner panel as variables. The slots on inner panel and palm reinforcement are observed to be most sensitive, whereas thicknesses of inner panel, palm and latch reinforcement are the most sensitive size variables. It also involves using a reduced content…
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Electronic Travelling Kit for Navigation of Visually Challenged Individuals

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Rajarajeswari Rathinam, Suchitra Dayalan, Harris Mathews
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Navigation of visually challenged persons is found tough, as they frequently do not get the essential details for escaping the perils and risk they come across when they want to reach a destination. Modernization of the world leads to the usage of technologically equipped devices to make compact and cost-effective setup. In order to help the visually impaired person to navigate securely swiftly an impediment identification system employing techno equipment such as Ultrasonic Sensors (US) and Universal Serial camera-based visual navigation system is proposed. The proposed framework identifies obstruction via the US and transmits audio signals as feedback to guide the individual about the location to be reached. Moreover, for capturing the location where the person has to move a universal serial bus (USB) webcam is employed. USB webcam is also deployed to distinguish between a human and an obstacle. In order to identify the persons well known to the visually challenged and also the presence of other human movements a face recognition system using image processing is adopted in the proposed system. The General…
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