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GM Technical Center-Santosh Swamy, Gulshan Noorsumar, Shivakumar Chidanandappa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2546
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
MASS OPTIMIZED HOOD DESIGN FOR CONFLICTING PERFORMANCES Santosh Swamy, Gulshan Noorsumar, Shivakumar Chidanandappa General Motors Technical Center, India Keywords Hood; Head Injury Criterion (HIC); Stiffness; Shape optimization; Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) Research and/or Engineering Questions/ Objective The objective of this work is to obtain a light weight hood which has least possible mass, and at the same time meets all contradicting performances of pedpro (pedestrian protection) and structural stiffness disciplines. Passenger vehicles have stringent safety norms from pedpro perspective to meet child and adult head injury criteria (HIC). These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with structural stiffness performance criteria which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. Therefore, there is a growing need for mass optimization and performance balancing to meet both the requirements simultaneously. Methodology The outlined method uses a CAE based Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to find an optimum design for stiffness and pedpro performances. Adding slots along the vertical beam walls of the hood inner panel helps soften the area around the head impact location, thereby improving pedpro performance locally.…

End-of-Life Vehicles in India – Regulatory Perspectives

International Centre For Automotive Tech-Vijayanta Ahuja
International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Shakti N Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2580
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The unprecedented increment in vehicle sales in the last decade brought several challenges with it. Older vehicles, conforming to lenient emission norms continue to ply on road, continuously producing higher emissions. This not only burdens the environment with air pollution caused due to emissions, but also with land pollution caused due to landfills and the overall impact of utilising more resources excavated through nature to fulfil manufacturing requirements. Due to absence of regulations, older vehicles also compromise on active, passive and pedestrian safety measures. A need was felt to withdraw such vehicles from the roads but due to the lack of incentives for the last vehicle owner, unavailability of infrastructure or policy, though a guideline standard (AIS-129) was published, the idea, in its entirety never came to fruition. This paper discusses the areas affected during and beyond the recycling of the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). While the scrap of the vehicle shall be crushed and re-utilised from scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous), this paper also discusses potential usage of the components (such as head lamps, RVMs…

Performance Assessment of Pyramidal Lattice Core Sandwich Engine Hood For Pedestrian Safety

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Anish Jafrin Thilak Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0089
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Usage of car increases every year, the accidents are mainly caused due to the carelessness of pedestrian or driver. Pedestrian accidents results in head trauma or death. It is necessary to manufacture the hood with the material which will absorb impact energy rather than transmitting it to head of the pedestrian. Safety devices such as airbags, energy absorbing steering columns, seat belts which were successfully designed and installed in the automobiles but this will reduce the damage to the persons sitting inside the car. There were no safety devices for pedestrians. GFRP pyramidal lattice core structures are used in automobiles which is used for good energy absorption. Glass fibre reinforced polymer are used for light weight, high strength. In this work, we have analysed GFRP pyramidal lattice core sandwich engine hood in ANSYS workbench under impact loading. For the finite element modelling the materials properties are taken from the previous literature. The results of finite element modelling of pyramidal lattice core sandwich engine hood yield lesser HIC values. This shows GFRP pyramidal lattice core absorbs…

Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

Ohio State University-Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Sheng Zhu, Gokul Arvind Anantharaman, Bilin Aksun Guvenc, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles. It leverages the Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication technology to create a real-time implementable collision avoidance algorithm along with decision-making for a vehicle that communicates with other vehicles. Four distinct collision risk environments are…
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Real Time 2D Pose Estimation for Pedestrian Path Estimation Using GPU Computing

Oakland University-Karam Abughalieh, Shadi Alawneh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Future fully autonomous and partially autonomous cars equipped with Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) should assure safety for the pedestrian. One of the critical tasks is to determine if the pedestrian is crossing the road in the path of the ego-vehicle, in order to issue the required alerts for the driver or even safety breaking action. In this paper, we investigate the use of 2D pose estimators to determine the direction and speed of the pedestrian crossing the road in front of a vehicle. Pose estimation of body parts, such as right eye, left knee, right foot, etc… is used for determining the pedestrian orientation while tracking these key points between frames is used to determine the pedestrian speed. The pedestrian orientation and speed are the two required elements for the basic path estimation. High Performance Computing (HPC) has recently been considerably improved, for instance GPU Computing has been developed to solve complex problems and transform the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) into a massively parallel processor. To enhance the performance of our pose estimator we…
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An Improved Multi-Pedestrian Tracking System Based on Deep Neural Network

Northeastern University-Yuan Gong, Jianning Chi, Xiaosheng Yu, Chengdong Wu, Yifei Zhang, Na Gao
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The intelligent vehicle driverless technology has become a very hot topic in the past two decades. To solve the road safety problem, which is one of the most important factors inhibiting the development of intelligent vehicle technology, the multi-target tracking system has attracted more and more attention in recent study since it can detect and track multiple objects in traffic scene so as to help the whole driving system plan the safe route. In this work, a novel multi-pedestrian tracking system based on deep neural network is proposed to improve the tracking efficiency while providing high recognition accuracy. The proposed tracking system consists of two parts: 1) pedestrian detector, and 2) pedestrian tracker. For the detector part, we first transform the image convolution operation in spatial-temporal domain to the coefficient product operation in complex frequency domain, and then replace the maximum pooling and mean pooling operation in the traditional SSD detection network by the proposed product operation, and the modified SSD model is used as the pedestrian detector. For the tracker part, we train a…
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Active Safety Bicyclist Test Targets Recommendation

Active Safety Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3157_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-06 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the Bicyclist Test Mannequin Task Force is to develop standard specifications/requirements for bicyclist test mannequins (one adult and one child) that are representative of real bicyclists to the sensors used in Bicyclist Detection systems and can be used for performance assessment of such in-vehicle systems (including warning and/or braking) in real world test scenarios/conditions. This version of the document only includes the recommended bicyclist mannequin characteristics for vision, Lidar, and/or 76 to 78 GHz radar-based Bicyclist Pre-Collision systems.
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Video-Recorded “Looked-but-Failed-to-See” (LBFTS) Accidents in the Junctions of Hong Kong

Hong Kong Government Laboratory-Yuk Ki Cheng, Cheok Ning Tam, Chi Hang Tao, Cheuk Nam Tsang
Published 2019-01-18 by SAE International in United States
To determine causation and contributory factors of “looked-but-failed-to-see” (LBFTS) junction accidents in which the driver stated that “I did not see the pedestrian,” in-depth studies of 22 such accidents which had taken place in Hong Kong were conducted. The studied crashes were all video recorded by closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and/or dashboard cameras. Using the video recordings, these junction accidents were reconstructed at the scenes to determine the drivers’ views of the pedestrians and the sequence of events leading up to each accident. The results of the reconstructions and the police investigations, as well as the testimony of the drivers, were analyzed to identify causation and contributing factors of each accident. Attention error/visual search strategy (41%) and misjudgments of drivers (18%) remain the dominant cause of LBFTS crashes. However, it was found that eight crashes (36%) were attributed to the physical obstructions caused by the A-pillars of the vehicles, with the obscuration of the pedestrians being the major contributory factor. This study shows that reconstructions based on video recordings can provide detailed accounts of junction…
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Styling and Packaging Approach to Meet Pedestrian Upper Leg Requirements as per Euro NCAP Protocol

Tata Motors Limited-Dnyaneshwar Mhaskar, Ashish Kumar Mahapatre, Milind Bhagat
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In most of the countries all over the world, thousands of pedestrians and vulnerable road users are struck by motor vehicles and getting killed or get severe injuries. Accident research data shows that pedestrians are a significant proportion of all road user casualties [1]. In pedestrian impact with vehicle front end, several organ forms impact directly to front end of the vehicles and get severe injuries in head, lower leg and pelvis region. Pelvis region of pedestrian get severe injuries due to hit by Bonnet Leading Edge. Impact force is major injury driving parameter in case of pelvis region. In earlier Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v7.1.1 [2], upper leg impact energy calculation was based on BLE (Bonnet Leading Edge) height and bumper lead. Vehicle front end styling was not playing any role in deciding upper leg impact energy. Upper leg impact performance was purely dependent on BLE height and package space available. Whereas in current Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v8.4 [3], upper leg impact energy calculation is estimated based on vehicle front end styling and…
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An Analytical Approach to Derive Free Package Space Requirement for Pedestrian Head Form

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Pratap Daphal, Ashish Mahapatre
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrians are a vulnerable road user group, comprising 22% of global road traffic deaths [1]. In Japan, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 28% of total road fatalities and approximately 16% in Australia. These figures compare with 13% for the USA and 40-50% for India and Thailand [2]. Various pedestrian safety requirements are mandated in different markets in recent years worldwide. For pedestrian head-form, vehicle front-end styling and the free package space below bonnet plays a vital role in deciding the pedestrian head-form safety performance. Currently during initial phase of vehicle development, the free package space requirement is decided based on benchmark data. However, the benchmarking data does not give any insight into the physics involved and is subjective in nature as it varies from vehicle to vehicle. This paper gives an analytical approach for defining the free package space requirements for meeting the targeted pedestrian head form performance requirements. The analytically derived Head Injury Criteria Vs package space is also compared with physical test results. Using analytical approach, an ideal two-step Head-form decelerations waveform is also…
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