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Landing Gear Integration into Aircraft Structure in Early Design Stage

Bauhaus Luftfahrt EV-Ulrich Kling, Mirko Hornung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1890
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The demanded development towards various emission reduction goals set up by several institutions forces the aerospace industry to think about new technologies and alternative aircraft configurations. With these alternative aircraft concepts, the landing gear layout is also affected. Turbofan engines with very high bypass ratios could increase the diameter of the nacelles extensively. In this case, mounting the engines above the wing could be a possible arrangement to avoid an exceedingly long landing gear. Thus, the landing gear could be shortened and eventually mounted at the fuselage instead of the wings. Other technologies such as high aspect ratio wings have an influence on the landing gear integration as well. To assess the difference, especially in weight, between the conventional landing gear configuration and alternative layouts a method is developed based on preliminary structural designs of the different aircraft components, namely landing gear, wing and fuselage. Simplified parametric finite element structural models for the different components are introduced. These models are used to investigate different aircraft configurations with special regard on the landing gear integration. The…
 

Gland Design: Nominal 3/8 Inch Cross Section for Compression-Type Seals

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4832A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) offers gland details for a 0.364 inch (9.246 mm) cross-section gland (nominal 3/8 inch) with proposed gland lengths for compression-type seals with two backup rings over a range of 7 to 21 inches (178 to 533 mm) in diameter. The dash number system used is similar to AS568A. A 600 series has been chosen as a logical extension of AS568A, and the 625 number has been selected for the initial number, since 300 and 400 series in MIL-G-5514 and AS4716 begin with 325 and 425 sizes. Seal configurations and design are not a part of this document. This gland is for use with compression-type seals including, but not limited to, O-rings, T-rings, D-rings, cap seals, etc.
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Landing Gear Structural Health Monitoring

A-5 Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6168A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses past and present approaches for monitoring the landing gear structure and shock absorber (servicing), opportunities for corrosion detection, methods for transient overload detection, techniques for measuring the forces seen by the landing gear structure, and methods for determining the fatigue state of the landing gear structure. Landing gear tire condition and tire pressure monitoring are detailed in ARP6225, AIR4830, and ARP6137, respectively. Aircraft Brake Temperature Monitoring Systems (BTMS) are detailed in AS1145.
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Aircraft Nosewheel Steering/Centering Systems

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1752A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
The intent of this AIR is twofold: (1) to present descriptive summary of aircraft nosewheel steering and centering systems, and (2) to provide a discussion of problems encountered and “lessons learned” by various airplane manufacturers and users. This document covers both military aircraft (land-based and ship-based) and commercial aircraft. It is intended that the document be continually updated as new aircraft and/or new “lessons learned” become available.
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Design and Verification of Aircraft Nose Wheel Steering Systems

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1595B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
This document provides recommended practices for the design, development, and verification testing of NWS systems.
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Landing Gear Shock Absorption Testing of Civil Aircraft

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5644
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
The intent of this document is to provide recommended practices for conducting shock absorption testing of civil aircraft landing gear equipped with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. The primary focus is for Part 25 aircraft, but differences for Part 23, 27, and 29 aircraft are provided where appropriate.
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Arresting Hook Installation, Land-Based Aircraft

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1538B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of land-based aircraft emergency and operational arresting hooks for use on runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier-based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
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Aircraft Jacking Pads Adapters and Sockets Design and Installation of

AGE-3 Aircraft Ground Support Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS8091A
  • Current
Published 2019-03-29 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides requirements for design and installation of aircraft jacking pad adapters and the mating jack socket interface to permit use of standard jacking equipment to be used in civil and military transport aircraft. The adapter defined herein shall be the key interface between the aircraft and the aircraft jack(s).
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Wheel Roll on Rim Criteria for Aircraft Applications

A-5A Wheels, Brakes and Skid Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1786C
  • Current
Published 2019-02-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a recommended minimum laboratory roll performance for main landing gear aircraft wheels without tires installed and applies to both bolted and lock-ring wheel designs for FAA Part 25 and military aircraft main wheels (not required for any nose wheels or main wheels on FAA Part 23, 27 or 29 applications).
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Aircraft Tire Inspection - In-Service Removal Criteria

A-5C Aircraft Tires Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6225A
  • Current
Published 2019-02-13 by SAE International in United States
This document is for establishing tire removal criteria of on-wing civil aircraft tires only. This document is primarily intended for use with commercial aircraft, but may be used on other categories of civil aircraft, as applicable. The criteria are harmonized with the Care and Service Manuals of the tire manufacturers for both radial and bias tires.
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