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MOLD IN COLOR DIAMOND WHITE ASA MATERIAL FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXTERIOR APPLICATION

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Karthik Govindaraj, K V Balaji, Murukesan Vimalathithan, Gandhi Samir, Ladhe Rajesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2562
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding. Also, it lowers overall production energy footprint, less scrap with no secondary painting, and lower final part cost by eliminating secondary operations.
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Approach for standardization of Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) in India

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Aditi Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2464
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Authors: Aditi Sethi1, Siddhanta Shrivastava2, Madhusudan Joshi3 Organization: 1,2,3 International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: With the increasing utilization of electronics in Indian automobile industry, there is an essential requirement for standardizing the functional safety of sub-systems that constitute advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) as it would be the foundation stone for the automated vehicles in future. These systems assist the driver and the driving process, further increasing the car safety and road safety, subsequently reducing human error. Due to interaction of several electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle and complexity of the system, electronic stability plays a vital role. Therefore, the standards shall be more performance oriented and technology neutral. They shall also cover validation tests associated with safety, mechanical rigidity, durability, environmental protection and electromagnetic compatibility. Standardization of ADAS would authenticate the quality, regulate and smoothen the uniform implementation of these sub-systems. Interestingly the standardization of ADAS is in progress at the international level. It is therefore pertinent to consider adoption, formulation or both of international standards as a part of…
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Calculation of Drag Torque Losses by Component of a Transfer Case

Magna Powertrain of America, Inc.-Ricardo Rivera Rodriguez, Carlos Martinez
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
In recent decades, fuel economy has become a key indicator of an automaker corporate social responsibility and a market differentiation factor, and ultimately it is regulated by government agencies such as EPA through CO2 emissions compliance tests. The light pick-up truck and SUV production share has been increasing in the last few years, being 4-wheel drive capability one of the main features that customers seek. Within the 4-Wheel Drive system, the transfer case has a significant impact to both torque transfer efficiency and parasitic losses. The scope of this paper is to better understand the parasitic losses of a transfer case by the quantification of its individual drag losses by component. At product development phases, one measurement of interest is the system level spin loss which has a target value defined by the automakers, and contribution by component is often neglected if the system has the expected performance. This study summarizes the tests performed on a 2-speed chain driven transfer case, where as a first step, a baseline spin loss measurement was taken, then the…
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Design Considerations and Analysis of Electric Microcar for Cities

VNR VJIET-Amjad Shaik, Raju Tappa, Prashanth Kannan, Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, Srinivasa Rao Talluri
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Increasing concerns about environmental issues, such as global warming and pollutant emissions have made increase in energy efficiency and emission reduction a primary concern for automobiles. In addition, the compounding effects of adding personal vehicles, increasing density of road traffic and intensifying parking difficulties are indirectly promoting proliferation of small-size vehicles in large cities. Hence, there is a need to develop a microcar with zero emission. Thus, electric microcar is probably the simplest, green and energy efficient vehicle that relatively affordable and easily maneuverable in cities. However, a careful analysis is required in order to properly evaluate the propulsion system component sizing, vehicle dimension, performance and weight. This paper mainly focuses on design options and modeling of electric microcar using hub motors followed by analysis. A two seater electric microcar analytical model using MATLAB has been carried out for sizing of powertrain elements. CAD modeling of tubular frame chassis using solid works followed by analysis using ANSYS is also carried out. A successful deployment of an electric microcar is need of the hour to meet…
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Measurement of Aerodynamic Performance for Mass-Produced Cars and Light-Duty Trucks

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2881_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-09 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice provides a procedure for measuring and documenting the aerodynamic performance in a full-scale wind tunnel of passenger vehicles, i.e., mass-produced cars and light-duty trucks intended primarily for individual consumers. Testing or numerical modeling of pre-production and/or reduced-scale models is outside the scope of this document. Aerodynamic development procedures, i.e., methods to improve or optimize aerodynamic performance, are also excluded. It is well-known that aerodynamic performance results depend significantly on vehicle content and loading, as well as the wind tunnel itself (type, scale, and simulation qualities of the wind tunnel). Publication of non-standard test results causes unnecessary additional development work and incorrect perception of a vehicle’s anticipated aerodynamic performance by government, academia, and the general public. The intent of this document is to promote uniformity and traceability of published aerodynamic performance data acquired in a wind tunnel, thereby enhancing the public reputation and credibility of the aerodynamics discipline in the total vehicle development process. Measurement of the aerodynamic performance according to this Recommended Practice requires a full-scale wind tunnel test on a production-ready,…
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Method for Predicting Lateral Attenuation of Airplane Noise

A-21 Aircraft Noise Measurement Aviation Emission Modeling
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5662
  • Current
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This document describes analytical methods for calculating the attenuation of the level of the sound propagating from an airplane to locations on the ground and to the side of the flight path of an airplane during ground roll, climbout after liftoff, and landing operations. Both level and non-level ground scenarios may be modeled using these methods, however application is only directly applicable to terrain without significant undulations, which may cause multiple reflections and/or multiple shielding effects. This attenuation is termed lateral attenuation and is in excess of the attenuation from wave divergence and atmospheric absorption. The methods for calculating the lateral attenuation of the sound apply to: turbofan-powered transport-category airplanes with engines mounted at the rear of the fuselage (on the sides of the fuselage or in the center of the fuselage as well as on the sides) or under the wings propeller-driven transport-category or general-aviation airplanes propagation over ground surfaces that may be considered to be “acoustically soft” such as lawn or field grass situations where the terrain to the sides of the flight…
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Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP85G
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing, and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating. c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers). d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply. e A ventilation subsystem. f A temperature control subsystem. g A pressure control subsystem. Other system components for treating cabin air, such as filtration and humidification, are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning. The interface with the major associated system, the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100) is at the inlet of the air conditioning shutoff valves. This boundary definition aligns with that in the…
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Measurement of Passenger Compartment Refrigerant Concentrations Under System Refrigerant Leakage Conditions

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2772_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-03 by SAE International in United States
This Standard is restricted to refrigeration circuits that provide air-conditioning for the passenger compartments of passenger and commercial vehicles. This Standard includes analytical and physical test procedures to evaluate refrigerant concentration inside the passenger compartment. In the early phases of vehicle evaluation, usage of the analytical approach may be sufficient without performing physical tests. The physical test procedure involves releasing refrigerant from an external source to a location adjacent to the evaporator core (inside the HVAC module). An apparatus is used to provide a repeatable, calibrated leak rate. If the system has multiple evaporators, leakage could be simulated at any of the evaporator locations. This standard gives detail information on the techniques for measuring R-744 (CO2) and R-1234yf (HFO-1234yf), but the general techniques described here can be used for other refrigerants as well.
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Test Procedure to Determine the Hydrocarbon Losses from Fuel Tubes, Hoses, Fittings, and Fuel Line Assemblies by Recirculation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1737_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for the determination of the losses of hydrocarbon fluids, by permeation through component walls, as well as through "microleaks" at interfaces of assembled components while controlling temperature and pressure independently of each other. This is achieved in a recirculating system in which elements of a test fuel that permeate through the walls of a test specimen and migrate through the interfaces are transported by a controlled flow of dry nitrogen to a point where they are measured. That measurement point is a device, such as a canister containing activated charcoal or other means of collection or accumulation where the hydrocarbon losses are then measured by weight change or analyzed by some other suitable means.
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Aerospace Fluid Power - Waste Reduction Practices for Used Phosphate Ester Aviation Hydraulic Fluid

A-6C3 Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5277B
  • Current
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the generation of used phosphate ester aviation hydraulic fluid (AS1241) that is deemed waste because it does not meet in-service limits for use in aircraft. This document also lists the relevant United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) regulations on used hydraulic fluid that are in force at the time of this report's publication. Regulations of other countries as well as those for states and municipalities should be consulted prior to initiating any of the waste disposal recommendations listed here.
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