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Optimization of Compression Ratio for Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for better fuel economy.

Tata Technologies Ltd-Sujit Vithoba Gavade, Aashish Bhargava, Chandrakant Deshmukh, Gaurav Soni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0165
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact of environment. Fuel economy gets the benefitted from optimum compression ratio in modern engines. Increasing of compression ratio of any vehicle results in improvement of emission levels and performance. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper includes include; combustion bowl volume in Piston, Cylinder head gasket thickness & Piston topping as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected for further Verification.

Study and Optimization of Spark Ignition System for Port Injection Turbocharged CNG

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Himanshu Gambhir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0057
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Availability of diesel and gasoline is diminishing at a healthy rate and on the other hand, emission norms are getting stringent year by year. So, at such a facet, alternative fuels have become a vital aspect of research for all the commercial and passenger vehicle manufacturers. CNG, being one of the top options for alternative fuels, is getting a lot of attention in commercial vehicles for now a day. Combustion optimization with stringent norms, minimum after treatment cost is becoming much more difficult. Hence, this is forcing everyone to explore different new areas for low cost solutions. Ignition system plays a dynamic role in achieving optimized performance and emissions. Spark gap, spark plug protrusion and desired spark voltage are few key indices from ignition system which majorly affects the combustion process inside the cylinder. The optimization of above parameters was carried out and these leads to BSFC increase of 3% and considerable reduction in THC and CH4 with almost similar NOx emissions. It was concluded that this study further increases the degree of freedom to…

Modelling and control of a novel clutchless multiple-speed transmission for electric vehicles

Mecaprom SRL-Mauro Grandone, Alberto Lega, Michele Pennese
University of Salerno-Ludovica Malafronte, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0063
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Conventional electric vehicles adopt either single-speed transmissions or direct drive architecture in order to reduce cost, losses and mass. However, the integration of optimized multiple-speed transmissions is considered as a feasible method to enhance EVs performances, (i.e. top speed, acceleration and grade climbing), improving powertrain efficiency, saving battery energy and reducing customer costs. Perfectly in line with these objectives, this paper presents a patented fully integrated electric traction system, as scalable solution for electrifying light duty passenger and commercial vehicles (1.5-4.2 tons), with a focus on minibuses (<20 seats). The adoption of high-speed motor coupled to multiple-speed transmission offers the possibility of a relevant efficiency improvement, a 50% volume reduction with respect to a traditional transmission, superior output torque and power density. The proposed clutchless four-speed transmission is specifically conceived and designed to have the good matching with the traction electric motor. Indeed, clutches and synchronizers are not required thanks to the small inertia of the traction motor and its fast regulation in both torque and speed mode (torque modulation process). Therefore, an advanced shifting…

Optimization of the Exhaust Aftertreatment System of a Heavy Duty Engine by means of Variable Valve Timing

Technische Universität Braunschweig-Marius Betz, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0143
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
In view of the current political debate, it can be assumed that the nitrogen oxide limits for commercial vehicles will be further reduced. This is also demonstrated by the currently voluntary certification of the CARB Optional Low NOX legislation, which requires nitrogen oxide emissions of 0.027 g / kWh. This corresponds to a reduction of 93% compared to the current EU VI standard. Therefore, the optimization of EAT systems represents an essential research focus for future commercial vehicle applications. One way to optimize the EAT system may be the usage of variable valve actuation. Existing investigations show an exhaust gas temperature increase with Miller timing, but the authors conclude that it cannot accelerate the heating process. With regard to the effects on the exhaust aftertreatment system and the resulting tailpipe emissions, only improved HC and CO oxidation could be identified so far. In addition, a potential for improved NOX reduction is expected in the exhaust gas temperature increase. Therefore, investigations are carried out at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technical University of…

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator Abstract.

Engine Design & Testing-Tushar Warkhade
Tata Technologies Ltd-Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0181
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organisation. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchange is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction. Further Cooling system performance of engine is evaluated along with Fuel efficiency; results are compared with present configuration.

The Ultra Low Emissions Potential of the Recuperated Split Cycle Combustion System

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen
Ricardo UK Ltd-Andrew Atkins, Rhys Pickett
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0189
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The recuperated split cycle engine is a fundamentally new class of internal combustion engine that offers a step change is thermal efficiency over conventional Otto and Diesel cycle engines – 50% brake thermal efficiency in its simplest form, approaching 60% with intensively cooled compression. The technology targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector where electrification is most challenging. In a split cycle engine, the compression and expansion strokes are performed in different cylinders. Waste exhaust heat is recovered between the compression and combustion cylinders via a recuperator which gives precise control of the charge temperature. Recent experimental and analytical research has shown the split cycle combustion system also has the potential to achieve ultra-low emissions. Experimental studies on a one litre single cylinder research engine, representative of a typical medium duty truck engine have showed engine out NOx emissions of less than 110ppm at mid speed – mid load, typical of a motorway cruise condition. Rigorous analysis of the impact of applying an SCR based aftertreatment system showed tailpipe NOx emissions of less than 5ppm are…

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

Continental-Giovanni Avolio
General Motors-Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo, Giacomo Belgiorno
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0111
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles. In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets and, therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important leverage for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 litres single-cylinder engine…

Smart cylinder deactivation strategies to improve fuel economy and pollutant emissions for Diesel-powered applications

FEV Group GmbH-Thomas Körfer
FEV Italia S.R.L.-Mauro Scassa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0055
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Further improvement of the trade-off between CO2- and pollutant emissions is the main motivating factor for the development of new diesel engine concepts, from light-duty car applications via medium-duty commercial vehicles up to large long-haul trucks. The deactivation of one or more cylinders of a light-duty diesel engine during low load operation can be a sophisticated method to improve fuel economy and reduce especially NOx emissions at the same time. Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) is and advanced cylinder deactivation technology, where the decision to fire or skip singular units of a multi-cylinder engine architecture is taken just prior to each firing opportunity, based on a balanced rankling of multiple input parameters. A DSF-equipped engine incorporates the ability to selectively deactivate cylinders on a cylinder event-by-event basis for best matching of the requested driver’s torque demand at optimum fuel efficiency, while ensuring no drawback in terms of drivability with respect to fully firing engine. Dynamic Skip Fire has already demonstrated significant fuel economy improvements for throttled spark-ignition engines on a number of different applications. The publication…

Comparison of Measurement Methods for Evaluating Displacement of Commercial Vehicle Seats

CVG-James Haylett
University of Washington-Peter Johnson
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Measuring the displacements in vehicle seat suspensions and the displacements the seat has to absorb may assist vehicle seat designers in better designing seats to absorb vibrations. Low frequency seat displacement is important in seat design to identify end-stop events and higher frequency shorter displacements are also important since seat components can be optimized to absorb these smaller displacements. Displacements can be directly measured with special instruments, but it would be less complicated if simple, compact accelerometers could be used to measure the seat displacements. This paper compares accelerometer-derived displacement measurements to known displacements derived from sinusoidal physics and field measured random displacements measured with potentiometers. Using known, controlled sinusoidal displacements, three lab-based experiments were conducted to determine how well accelerometers, using double integration, could measure displacements. In addition, using a vehicle travelling on four different road types, the capability of accelerometers measuring random displacement was assessed. In general, the accelerometer-derived displacements matched the known sinusoidal displacement in the lab settings and the potentiometer measured displacements in the field; however, limitations were identified. First, the…
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Ford amped for new phase of hybrid-electric offensive

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_12
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

With the persistent auto-industry question of how soon battery electric vehicles will become mainstream options, Ford is preparing to widely deploy its fourth-generation hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) technology that Dave Felipe, the VP of powertrain engineering, said will result in a fuel-efficient, performance-rich HEV variant for “all mainstream models” in North America.

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