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Water Avoidance Design Strategy for Capacitive Exterior Handles

Ford Motor Company-Douglas Demori, Júlio Magalhães, Anderson Ferreira, Filipe Camargo, Bruno Freitas
Huf Hülsbeck & Fürst-Pedro Dias, Michel Turbiani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0187
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, capacitive handles are increasing their use in high-end commercial vehicles. This particular handle applies a technology that permits to unlock and even lock the vehicle without a key. As benefit for current life, the customer has the possibility to access and close the vehicles more efficiently and faster, just possessing the key in the pocket or any close compartment that the user is carrying, for example, bag, purse, backpack. Even though, the design of capacitive exterior handle must follow several design strategies to avoid nonfunctional in rainy climate. Water could work as a blocker for the sensor signal captured, special design strategies that must be taken in order to minimize that the liquid could ingress the handle and even be retained on the region that sensor is located. On this two-piece handle not only the parting line location, drain holes and a favorable drainage for liquids inside the handle must be designed, but also a control on the painting capacitance is hugely important for a successful project. Overall, to validate physically the design, test…
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Brake noise analysis on tractive axle of 6x2 tractor vehicle

CNHI - Iveco Latin America / UFMG – Programa de Pós-Graduaçã-Rafael Fortuna Pizzi
CNHI – Iveco Latin America-Getúlio Soares Júnior
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0008
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This study aims at analyzing the causes of noise in a heavy vehicle brake system (6x2 tractor) and proposing solutions to improve comfort during braking as it is known that, during the activation of the automotive brakes, noise can be generated in different frequency bands that can cause discomfort to the user and the study of how to reduce it is considerably important to bring more comfort in its use. As a working methodology, firstly, comparative analysis of dimension and material were performed between the axle assembly that presented noise and another axle assembly of a vehicle with no noise adopted as reference. This information was used as the basis for the frequency and acceleration virtual analysis that were validated with vehicle instrumentation and data acquisition. In parallel, vehicle tests with different brake friction materials were conducted. The answers of the dimension and material analysis from the axles assemblies highlighted the specificities of each of them but did not show great influence in the observed noise incidence. The vehicle instrumentation and data acquisition besides validate…
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Mass Optimization of a Front Floor Reinforcement

Ford Motor Company-Gimaezio Gomes Carvalho, Diego Freitas de Araújo, Rodrigo Silva Rodrigues
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0149
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Optimization of heavy materials like steel, in order to create a lighter vehicle, it is a major goal among most automakers, since heavy vehicles simply cannot compete with a lightweight model's fuel economy. Thinking this way, this paper shows a case study where the Size Optimization technique is applied to a front floor reinforcement. The reinforcement is used by two different vehicles, a subcompact and a crossover Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), increasing the problem complexity. The Size Optimization technique is supported by Finite Element Method (FEM) tools. FEM in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is a numerical method for solving engineering problems, and its use can help to optimize prototype utilization and physical testing. As the component geometry was already defined, the Size Optimization becomes the most adequate technique to be used, because it defines ideal component parameters, such as material values, cross-section dimensions and thicknesses, without changing its shape [1]. The Size Optimization methodology is a procedure in which certain parameters (Design Variables) need to be determined to achieve targeted performance (Objective Function) under given…
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Development challenges of hydraulic brakes for commercial vehicles

Volkswagen Truck & Bus-Narã Vieira Vetter, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Eduardo Henrique Souza Fontes, Felipe Nogueira, Guilherme Henrique Fonseca, Luis Fernando Nuss de Souza, Rodrigo de Oliveira dos Reis, Vangelo Cardoso Manenti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0013
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The automotive research and development environment is increasingly challenging and complex, full of new technologies, regulations and customized customer needs. In addition, the cargo transportation market is very dynamic and competitive, becoming complex the strategies for companies in this segment. According to Anfavea (2018), this trend, especially in large urban centers, has driven the intention to use light commercial vehicles to capillize deliveries in destinations with a high demographic concentration and traffic limited to medium and heavy vehicles. In this scenario, the demand for diversified products is increasing in order to overcome the main tradeoff: “minimizing the size of the trucks and maximize the load capacity”. It brings the number of complex projects. The brake system is greatly impacted in these developments mainly because light commercial vehicles are situated in a weight range that we can call "identity crisis" if on the one hand they need an upgrade compared to a conventional car and use the hydraulic brake on the other one need a downgrade of a medium or heavy truck that brings robustness and…
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Commercial vehicle pedal feeling comfort ranges definition

Ford Motor Company-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Marco André Rodrigues da Silva, Lázaro Renato Oliveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0016
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand.Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel.On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior. However, for pneumatic brake systems, the pedal feel theoretical study is not usual, where is normally used for these developments, exclusively the subjective evaluation which become necessary to have more specialists to define the brake pedal behavior.Throughout this article will be revised the characteristics concepts…
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Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

International Transportation Innovation Center (ITIC)-Joachim Taiber
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019004
Published 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ridesharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part-time fleet operation by utilizing the company’s fleet service. These robotaxi fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation.Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicle fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure. MaaS platforms can also cause a reduced reliance on parking infrastructure (e.g., street parking lanes and parking garages) which can contribute to an improvement in overall traffic flow, and a reduction in capital investment for commercial and residential real-estate development. Urban planning can be better centered around the true mobility needs of the citizens without sacrificing valuable…
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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Cetrax Lite - Implementation on a Light Duty truck

ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Alfred-Colsman-Platz 1, 88045 Friedri-Frank-Detlef Speck
ZF Japan Co., Ltd., Teisan Kannai Bldg. 209 Yamashita-cho, N-Rafel Pascual de la Cruz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2371
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Electric mobility becomes more and more important for commercial vehicle applications. Hybrid or electric vehicles help to reduce CO2 and other emissions, but also have additional benefits like reduced noise. The driveline design plays a crucial role for the operation of such vehicles but for an effective design, costs and on-weight also have to be considered. ZF Electric strategy provides tailored driveline solutions for Light Commercial Vehicles. This presentation resumes the implementation of such a driveline concept into a Japanese made LCV, where the differences between European and Asian application cases have been evaluated. The project shows a proof of concept where mechanics, HV system and functions have been tested in order to implement a series production design.
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Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Achieving for both Fuel Economy and Reliability

COSMO OIL LUBRICANTS CO, LTD.-Hideki Nakamura, Shinji Ejiri
Hino Motors, Ltd.-Yoichiro Nakamura, Ken Hashimoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2243
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
When the engine oil evaporates in the crankcase, it is necessary to discharge to the outside of the engine or returns to the intake air as part of blow-by gas. The amount of oil content in the blow-by gas is preferable to be as small as possible. This paper researched the evaporation characteristics of diesel engine oil for heavy duty into blow-by gas using 5W-30 and 10W-30 engine oils with the equivalent to Noack. As a result, it is found that evaporate phenomenon cannot be explained well enough by just Noack and clarified of the oil evaporation mechanism in blow-by gas.
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Simultaneous NOX and CO2 Reduction for Meeting Future CARB Standards Using a Heavy-Duty Diesel CDA-NVH Strategy

SAE International Journal of Engines

Eaton, USA-Matthew Pieczko, James E. McCarthy
Southwest Research Institute, USA-Gary Neely, Chris Sharp
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0014
Published 2019-12-10 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel consumption standards, improve diesel aftertreatment (AT) system performance, and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Simultaneous reductions in both CO2 and NOX emissions will be required to meet the upcoming regulatory targets for both EPA Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Standards and new Low NOX Standards being proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). In addition, CARB recently proposed a new certification cycle that will require high NOX conversion while vehicles are operating at lower loads than current regulatory cycles require. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) offers a powerful technology lever for meeting these two regulatory targets on commercial diesel engines. There have been numerous works in the past year showing the benefits of diesel CDA for elevating exhaust temperatures during low-load operation where it is normally too cold for AT to function at peak efficiency. At the same time, CO2 and fuel consumption are reduced through a combination of lower pumping and friction losses and improved thermal efficiency in the cylinders that are still firing. However, CDA has…
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