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Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
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Time Domain Full Vehicle Interior Noise Calculation from Component Level Data by Machine Learning

Mercedes-Benz AG-Dimitrios Ernst Tsokaktsidis, Clemens Nau
Technical University of Munich-Steffen Marburg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1564
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Computational models directly derived from data gained increased interest in recent years. Data-driven approaches have brought breakthroughs in different research areas such as image-, video- and audio-processing. Often denoted as Machine Learning (ML), these approaches are not widely applied in the field of vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) yet. Related works mainly discuss the topic with respect to structural health monitoring, psychoacoustics, traffic noise and as improvement to existing numerical simulation methods. Vehicle interior noise is a major quality criterion for today’s automotive development. To estimate noise levels early in the development process, deterministic system descriptions are created by utilizing time-consuming measurement techniques. This paper examines whether pattern-recognizing algorithms are suitable to improve the prediction process for a steering system. Starting from operational measurements, a procedure to calculate the sound pressure level in the passenger cabin is developed and investigated. Component time domain data serves as basis for the computation. The important inputs are determined by a correlation analysis. Input selection is followed by data reduction. After preprocessing, a supervised learning environment is established.…
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Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies. Then, the regenerative brake control problem during ABS events is formulated with a unified control system architecture where the regenerative braking torque is coordinated with the friction braking torque of ABS system. An integrated closed loop based wheel slip control including both regenerative braking control loop and friction braking control loop during ABS event, referred to as…
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Cooperative Mandatory Lane Change for Connected Vehicles on Signalized Intersection Roads

Clemson University-Zhiyuan Du, Bin Xu, Pierluigi Pisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0889
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a hierarchical control architecture to coordinate a group of connected vehicles on signalized intersection roads, where vehicles are allowed to change lane to follow a prescribed path. The proposed hierarchical control strategy consists of two control levels: a high level controller at the intersection and a decentralized low level controller in each car. In the hierarchical control architecture, the centralized intersection controller estimates the target velocity for each approaching connected vehicle to avoid red light stop based on the signal phase and timing (SPAT) information. Each connected vehicle as a decentralized controller utilizes model predictive control (MPC) to track the target velocity in a fuel efficient manner. The main objective in this paper is to consider mandatory lane changes. As in the realistic scenarios, vehicles are not required to drive in single lane. More specifically, they more likely change their lanes prior to signals. Hence, the vehicle decentralized controllers must prepare to cooperate with the vehicle that has a mandatory lane change request (host vehicle). The cooperative mandatory lane change is accomplished…
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Leveraging real-world driving data sets for design and impact evaluation of energy efficient control strategies.

General Motors LLC-Bharatkumar Hegde, Steven E. Muldoon
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Michael O'Keefe, Jeffrey Gonder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0585
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Modeling and simulation are crucial in the development of advanced energy efficient control strategies. Utilizing real-world driving data as the underlying basis for control design and simulation lends veracity to projected real-world energy savings. Standardized drive cycles are limited in their utility for evaluating advanced driving strategies that utilize connectivity and on-vehicle sensing, primarily because they are non-causal and are typically intended for evaluating emission and fuel economy under controlled conditions. Real-world driving data, because of its scale, is a useful representation of various road types, driving styles, and driving environments. The scale of real-world data also presents challenges in effectively using it in simulations. A fast and efficient simulation methodology is necessary to handle the large number of simulations performed for design analysis and impact evaluation of control strategies. In this study, we present two methods of leveraging real-world data in both design optimization of energy efficient control strategies and in evaluating the real-world impact of those control strategies upon large-scale deployment. Through these methodologies, strategies with highest impact on energy savings were selected…
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Vision System for Detecting a Small Object with Arbitrary Shape at Far Range

Great Wall Motor Co., Ltd.-Shunji Miyahara, Huan Li, Kunpeng Xie, Jincheng Bai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0094
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For one of the advanced sensing technologies for the autonomous driving, we have been working on the new vision system. It focuses on detecting the small object at far ranges. It enables to detour a vehicle by avoiding small object. This system is based on the high-resolution mono-camera with narrow FOV and the algorithms for object-detection and lane-detection. Since we have already proposed the system for the traffic cones, we proceed to a new algorithm for an unknown object with arbitrary shape. It can detect the object and estimate its range by using the information on the lane even though the shape and dimension of the object are unknown. Here the system architecture and how the algorithm to detect the object and estimate its range are described. The algorithm is at first validated by a computer-generated image. And then it is applied to real images. For the cones, the accuracy was +/- 4 [m] for the ranges between 50 and 150 [m]. For unknown objects (a tire and a cardboard), the detection was successful and…
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Evaluation Methodologies in the Development of Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems in the Automotive Industry

BMW Group-Florian Oszwald, Ruben Bertelo
Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology-Juergen Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1363
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Classical decentralized architectures based on large networks of microprocessor-based Electronic Control Units (ECU), namely those used in self-driving cars and other highly-automated applications used in the automotive industry, are becoming more and more complex. These new, high computational power demand applications are constrained by limits on energy consumption, weight, and size of the embedded components. The adoption of new embedded centralized electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures based on dynamically reconfigurable hardware represents a new possibility to tackle these challenges. However, they also raise concerns and questions about their safety. Hence, an appropriate evaluation must be performed to guarantee that safety requirements resulting from an Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) according to the standard ISO 26262 are met.In this paper, a methodology for the evaluation of dynamically reconfigurable systems based on centralized architectures is presented. The aim is to evaluate the reliability and probability of failure while exploring the design space without compromise the overall system performance.The methodology is divided into three stages. In the first stage, the system is decomposed, and its sub-systems are isolated before applying…
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CARB Low NOX Stage 3 Program - Aftertreatment Evaluation and Down Selection

Southwest Research Institute-Bryan Zavala, Christopher Sharp, Gary Neely, Sandesh Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1402
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/hp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels utilizing a turbo-compound (TC) engine, which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. The Stage 3 program leverages a different engine architecture more representative of the broader heavy-duty industry to meet the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) targets and to simplify the ULN aftertreatment solution. The following work will discuss the aftertreatment technology evaluation, down selection criteria, and the emission results for the candidate ULN systems
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Robust Sensor Fused Object Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks for Autonomous Vehicles

Kettering University-Jungme Park, Sriram Jayachandran Raguraman, Aakif Aslam, Shruti Gotadki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0100
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Environmental perception is considered an essential module for autonomous driving and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). Recently, deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the State-of-the-Art with many different architectures in various object detection problems. However, performances of existing CNNs have been dropping when detecting small objects at a large distance. To deploy any environmental perception system in real world applications, it is important that the system achieves high accuracy regardless of the size of the object, distance, and weather conditions. In this paper, a robust sensor fused object detection system is proposed by utilizing the advantages of both vision and automotive radar sensors. The proposed system consists of three major components: 1) the Coordinate Conversion module, 2) Multi level-Sensor Fusion Detection (MSFD) system, and 3) Temporal Correlation filtering module. The proposed MSFD system employs the principles of artificial intelligence beyond simple comparison of data variance of the sensors. And then, its performance is further improved by using the temporal correlation information with an adaptive threshold scheme. The proposed system is evaluated with the collected…
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Vehicle Design Considerations Enabling High-Performance Charging

Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co. KG-Christian Josef Paar, Helmut Martin Waser, Heimo Kreimaier, Inés Cuenca-Jaen, Florian Eibler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1440
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Customer requirements such as range anxiety and charging time are the driver for increasing the charging power of battery-electric vehicles (BEV). High-performance charging (HPC) theoretically enables time targets of faster than 30 kilometers (19 miles) recharging per minute. Due to physical limitations (i.e., current limits of the components) a charging power of more than 200 kilowatt arises the question of the voltage level required to fulfill the power demand. One possible approach to achieve a high charging power is increasing the battery voltage, i.e., increase the voltage level from 400 V to 800 V. This publication discusses the main aspects of charging by incorporating all high-voltage components in the vehicle. An increase of the voltage level and charging power affect all high-voltage components. The thermal management of the battery has to be considered. High-voltage vehicle architecture design considerations are discussed including thermal-management and battery-design aspects. Different charging characteristics from electric vehicles (EVs) available, are compared with an estimated fast charging profile which is based on theoretical background of available cells including consideration of physical and…