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Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

EllectroCrafts Aerospace-Fabio Alonso da Silva
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019012
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportations' (DOT's) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. The validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to the implementation of the correct system requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development lifecycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products. This report suggests a regulatory text and a safety and V&V approach from an aerospace engineering perspective assessing the replacement of the human driver from the decision-making role by a computational system. This article suggests an approach where aerospace guidelines can be used alongside ISO 26262 in order to define a viable and valuable framework for autonomous…
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NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Boobala Krishnan D, Himanshi Dua, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP J-case fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, micro relay and mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and High current micro relay respectively. Results We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation…
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BlockChain - A disruptive technology in Automotive Industry

Automotive Software-Prabha Baragur Venkataram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2436
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
When i decided to buy a second hand car from a dealer to learn driving, i was sceptical of the mileage usage for which a particular price was charged. Though the well know dealer told me a about the car, its previous usage, the fact that there were no accidents, and so on, there was no reliable way to verify what the dealer was offering. In order to solve such issues, we are looking at a disruptive technique which will cause a complete paradigm shift - by using blockchain technique. This paper talks about the basics of the blockchain technology and its relevance in automotive industry. We also look at some real life scenarios, where this technology helps to build reliability as one of the implicit requirements. We will start looking at how the block chain will help to reliably select the right components in the assembly line. Also we look at different aspects of software architecture like security and how blockchain can provide solutions in this area. Also we will look at the Service…
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Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…
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Design and Development of Industrial Automotive Battery Management system

Dipali Dange, Radhika Ballal L
Assistant professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle need accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of charge (SOC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for its safe working. So, the main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SOC, predict degradation parameters, balance individual cells, manage cell temperature, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SOC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery, also performing inductive Active balancing on cells to equalize the charge. proposed algorithms communicate with the vehicle ECU through CAN to assist the driver for runtime estimation, time for battery swapping, Alerts. Li-ion cells undergo current tests like pulsed charge-discharge, and transient response is effectively captured with parameter estimation with various degraded cells. Estimated model used in system and build battery stack. Balancing algorithm designed…
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HANDLING EXCEPTIONAL SITUATION OF AN AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE

General Motors Technical Center India-Balasab Kardegouda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2526
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In autonomous vehicle world human safety takes highest priority. And most researchers agree that machines won't be able to completely take over driving duties for years or even decades. "Today's autonomous vehicles can drive relatively well in typical settings, but they fail in exceptional situations - and it's those situations that are the most dangerous," said Walter Lasecki, an assistant professor of computer science and engineering. "Designing autonomous systems that can handle those exceptional situations could take decades, and in the meantime, we're going to need something to fill the gap. Few companies have introduced human safety drivers in autonomous vehicles which has cost advantage compared to traditional ride sharing services. Combining human and artificial intelligence in autonomous vehicles could push driverless cars more quickly toward wide - scale adoption. The aim of this paper is to showcase serial data architecture of high speed data transfer of critical predicted vehicle data of an exceptional situations, both onboard and offboard. This data shall be used for instantaneous analysis and decision making during exceptional situations. According to…
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Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless Vehicle

Eicher Motors Limited-Nikhil Baluja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2530
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Paper Title - Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless vehicle Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective (maximum 100 words)  In current scenario, wiring harness plays a vital role in inter-connecting electrical & electronic components fitted all across the vehicle.  As per cable standard, DIN 72551 or ISO 6722, copper conductors being used in stranded wires against cable cross-section & corresponding weight.  While going complete wire-less requires each component to have its own battery, ground, transmitter & receiver which indeed is a very costly affair to be employed in vehicle as huge development cost is required.  Here I'm suggesting an innovative method to make a vehicle apparently Wire-Less by creating local clusters connected to each other via conventional wiring harness & wire-less module.  Such method will apparently give a look of Wire-less vehicle itself & better advantages in terms of installation, service, troubleshooting, uptime & customer delight.  Moreover, direct benefits of Cost, Weight, FE will also be achieved. Methodology (maximum 150 words) # To start with this technology, I've divided it in different…
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Development of Electric Vehicle Controller by using MBD approach

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Komal Behl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2494
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The automobile industry is moving towards electrification of Vehicle to remove the exhaust gas emissions. A project was undertaken to develop Electric Vehicle control system from concept to vehicle trials in less than a year. The complete development cycle of an electronic controller required to be compressed to prepare mule electric vehicle within timeline. Agile methodology has been used for this project instead of waterfall as other control systems were in developing stage; system requirements were changing frequently. This paper presents the electric vehicle control unit development with agile methodology using model based development (MBD) in MATLAB and Simulink environment. The project flow consists of major phases like design of electrical architecture, system requirements specification, selection and setting up the simulation platform, EVCU strategy development, testing on Model in Loop (MIL)/ Hardware in Loop (HIL), vehicle trials. The electrical architecture of EV has been designed in Simulink for depicting the interfaces of EVCU with different sensors, battery management subsystem (BMS), and charging subsystem including both AC and DC, motor subsystem, relays and actuators. The strategies…
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Design and Research of Intelligent Vehicle EPB Controller Based on ISO26262 Standard

Nanjing Tech University-Min Song
Senior-Tian Le Jia
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the development of intelligent vehicle and new energy vehicles has advanced by leaps and bounds, which has further improved the safety requirements of controllers. And more and more component manufacturers are actively promoting the ISO 26262 standard “Road Vehicles-Functional Safety”. At the same time, the electronic parking brake (EPB) system is an indispensable electronic product of the intelligent vehicle, which brings convenience to drivers and improves vehicle safety. So it is necessary to develop an intelligent vehicle pneumatic EPB system based on the ISO 26262 standard to improve reliability and safety. In this paper, the concept phase of the ISO 26262 standard was analyzed and applied to the design of the EPB system. The risk assessment and risk analysis of the EPB system were carried out, and the corresponding safety objectives were formulated. In this paper, a dual MCU scheme was proposed to the EPB system, which contained the core MCU and the monitoring MCU. Then the hardware circuit is designed according to the proposed safety goal, including mutual reset circuit and…
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Design and Validation of a Prototype Underlying Control System for Autonomous Vehicles

China Software Testing Center-Rong Wang
Fourth Author-Chaoyu Zhang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
With the development of self-driving cars, large amounts of sensors controllers, actuators and other devices will be integrated into autonomous driving system and the electrical and electronic architecture of traditional vehicles needs to be changed and upgraded. Therefore, this paper proposes a kind of autonomous vehicle underlying control system, which inputs perception and decision information and outputs control instructions to complete autonomous driving. The original vehicle electrical system hardware and software had redesigned and developed and a new electronic and electrical architecture for self-driving vehicles is presented. The underlying control system was designed to solve the problem of system integration and meet the upgrading requirements of data calculation and real-time transmission in autonomous vehicles. In the paper, the overall designing scheme of underlying control system introduces the underlying control system architecture diagram and three-layer modular communication architecture, then autonomous vehicles underlying control system hardware circuit design, software design and experiments are separated illustrated. With regards of hardware circuit, the underlying control system components, working mechanism and the integration with perception module and positioning module were…
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