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Materials Innovation and Their Applications in the Transportation Industry
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New Materials and Experiences for the Industrialization of Pu Structural Rim Technology

Enichem Montedipe-G. Ferrari, E. Bianchin
Montedison-R. Bonari, F. D'Oria
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A122
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
Processes involving use of reactive polymers received recently considerable attention also for producing components suitable for automotive structural applications. In particular polyurethane structural RIM technology seems to be the route of choice in terms of productivity, reliability and physico- mechanical performances in order to fit the automotive industry needs in the production of parts requiring superior load bearing properties. In this frame the development of long pot life snap-cure resins, fast and effective reinforcement preforming techniques as well as the development of computerized provisional processing methodologies are of paramount importance in view of industrialization of the technology. In this paper a description of the work carried out by Enichem Montedipe and Montedison is given. In particular a new family of PU systems, based on special isocyanate variants, is reported. These have been successfully tested on a full scale structural RIM plant including a continuous preforming unit, injection machine and molding equipment. Characterization data of medium size molded components and preliminary check of a computer aided processing model are also reported.
 

Surface Treatments and Characterization of Electroplated and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

Università di Trento-L. Fedrizzi, G. Biscaglia, P. L. Bonora
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A126
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
Protection of surfaces is a critical factor in determining the extended service life of a structure in polluted and aggressive environments. In particular, a rapid growth of the technology for the protecting coating of cold rolled steel is experienced, for the use in transport, electric housewares, building and industrial plants. Numerous changes have taken place in the production of zinc coatings on steel in order to improve the corrosion resistance using zinc alloy platings.Our research group collected from the international production a number of selected galvanized steel samples, including electrodeposited zinc alloys, multilayer coatings, hot dip galvanized steels. On the selected materials we established and analyzed morphology, composition, crystal structure, impurity content and distribution, using many surface microanalysis techniques. Electrochemical DC and AC measurements were carried out in electrolytes suitable to show up self-corrosion rate and the influence of the oxidized surface layers (3.5% NaCl and 0.1M (NH4)2SO4).The experimental approach used showed to be useful in determining the corrosion mechanisms in aerated and deaerated solution; moreover a good correlation was found between the production parameters,…
 

Recycling of Us Automobile Materials: a Conundrum for Advanced Materials

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Frank R. Field, Joel P. Clark
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A090
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas.In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties.Today's automobile recycling problem again derives from technological and economic factors, but the influence of regulations upon both the source and the resolution of this problem are far stronger today. While there is no…
 

Implications of Future Scrap Car Handling for Design of Cars

Free Univ.-Frank den Hond, Peter Groenewegen
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A124
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
In this paper the socio-economic and technical problems of the handling of car wrecks are discussed. The recovery of metals as a goal for shredder operations will increasingly be supplemented with the recovery of other materials such as polymers. In order to deal economically and technically with polymer materials, it is necessary to know in advance which type of wreck handling will be used. Also optimization of shredder operations allow less freedom to incorporate a variety of materials when compared with selective dismantling or disassemble of cars. It is argued that various technical solutions have to be accompanied by increased cooperation along the firms that are connected to the handling of car wrecks. Cooperation between the scrap context and designers is essential, in order to optimize dismantling practices according to criteria of environmentally preferred solutions.
 

Application of Shape Memory Heat Engines to Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy

Iowa State Univ.-M. S. Wechsler, J. H. Van Gerpen
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A128
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
Shape memory materials undergo temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations that involve reversible dimensional changes. In performing these changes in shape, the shape-memory material is able to do work against external constraints, and this is the basis for shape-memory low-temperature heat engines. The transformation temperatures on heating and cooling are often not very different (little hysteresis) and are well defined and reproducible. Furthermore, these temperatures can be adjusted by varying the composition of the shape memory alloy. Internal combustion engines dissipate approximately two-thirds of the fuel energy as heat to the exhaust and coolant systems. A low-temperature heat engine could convert a fraction of this heat energy to useful work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for the application of shape memory heat engines to internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Metallurgical and thermodynamic factors are discussed, as well as engine efficiency.
 

A Fatigue Data-Bank Developed as a Design Support for Structures in Composite Materials

Padua Univ.-B. Atzori, P. Lazzarin, S. Palma
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A092
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
A data bank developed to give a concrete help to the designer concerned with fatigue-prone structures made of composite materials is described. The data bank not only collects the available results of fatigue tests on these materials, but also makes easy their statistical analysis and comparison for design purposes. It is then believed to constitute also an useful research instrument for the development of design rules for well defined classes of composite materials.
 

Fe Model Adjustment of a Composite Material Car-Body By Means of Experimental Modal Analysis on the Prototype

Istituto G. Donegani-A. Antoniazzi, F. Berti, C. Fernandes, S. Grimaldi
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A095
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
A procedure adopted to verify and update the finite elements model of an electric powered car-body manufactured from composite materials is described.Experimental results, obtained from modal testing of the prototype, are used in order to identify and correct discrepancies in the FE model. The availability of a highly reliable FE model allows to simulate structural modifications by computer, optimizing the use of composites and reducing in the same time at minimum prototypes construction. The approach followed suggests a possible remarkable reduction in product development costs and duration.The work has been performed within a larger program for the development of thermoplastic composite materials, with particular attention to transportation market.
 

Recycling Automobiles: a Problem of Environment and Resources

Politechnico di Torino-Ignazio Amato
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A130
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
The socio-economic system is coming to the conclusion that the environment will no longer tolerate and absorb all of man's interventions, and that natural resources no longer constitute a cheap and inexhaustible source of wealth.In this scenario of the limits of nature and ever-increasing environmental costs, we are faced with the problem of recovering and reusing the materials which go into the manufacture of an automobile.The replacement of metal materials with polymer materials leads to a reduction in the re-usable waste, and to an increase in the amount of waste with no economic value, or even with a negative economic value.The use of the non-ferrous and non-aluminous materials in an automobile is beyond the capabilities of new techniques for scrapping automobiles, which means that at the end of their lives, the automobiles must be disassembled, sorted on the basis of the constitute materials, recovered and recycled.This new approach to scrapping automobiles means that we must plan for the recycling of the families of materials used in the manufacture of automobiles, with preference given to those…
 

Future Trends in Applications of Structural Composite for Automotive

Dow Europe-Enzo Carrubba
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A097
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
The paper outlines the future trends for structural applications of composite in automotive. RTM, SMC and S-RIM seem to be the most promising technologies in this field. Parts made with epoxy resins in resin transfer molding technology have very good mechanical properties that allow them to be suitable for chassis applications coupled with steel parts. The SMC compounded with Derakane resin shows very good qualities in terms of temperature resistance and a reasonable high volume of production. The last technology rising is the S- RIM that seems to be very promising because of its short cycle time coupled with mechanical properties. Several examples of applications of these different technologies are showed in the paper; some of those are already in production some others are in an advanced phase of development.
 

Pultrusion Technology for the Transportation Industry

Hercules Inc.-S. Raciti, F. Turris, F. Policelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A099
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
The utilization of the pultrusion process for the manufacturing of components and structures for the transportation industry is discussed.Both the characteristics and capabilities of the process and the properties of pultruded composites are reviewed.The most important characteristics of this process is its capability of producing cost effective composite products which exhibit all the features of other composites. The benefits of this technology are demonstrated by a variety of applications for different industries together with the more recent developments for the transportation industry.