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Ziman, Pauline
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An Efficient, High-Precision Vehicle Testing Procedure to Evaluate the Efficacy of Fuel-Borne Friction Modifier Additives

BASF Corporation (USA)-Robert J. Bacchi
BASF SE (Germany)-Dr. Marc Walter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2353
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Improved fuel economy is increasingly a key measure of performance in the automotive industry driven by market demands and tighter emissions regulations. Within this environment, one way to improve fuel economy is via fuel additives that deliver friction- reducing components to the piston-cylinder wall interface. Whilst the use of friction modifiers (FMs) in fuel or lubricant additives to achieve fuel economy improvements is not new, demonstrating the efficacy of these FMs in vehicles is challenging and requires statistical design together with carefully controlled test conditions. This paper describes a bespoke, efficient, high-precision vehicle testing procedure designed to evaluate the fuel economy credentials of fuel-borne FMs. By their nature, FMs persist on engine surfaces and so their effects are not immediately reversible upon changing to a non FM-containing fuel (“carryover” effect), therefore requiring careful design of the test programme. The solution presented here comprises a one-day chassis dynamometer test, internally referencing the fuel economy of an FM- containing test fuel to an FM-free reference fuel. When incorporated into a statistically designed test programme, two or more…
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Impact of Demanding Low Temperature Urban Operation on the Real Driving Emissions Performance of Three European Diesel Passenger Cars

Concawe, Belgium-Heather Hamje
Eni SpA, Italy-Corrado Fittavolini, Leonardo Pellegrini
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In Europe, the development and implementation of new regulatory test procedures including the chassis dynamometer (CD) based World Harmonised Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure, has been driven by the close scrutiny that real driving emissions and fuel consumption from passenger cars have come under in recent times. This is due to a divergence between stated certification performance and measured on-road performance, and has been most pointed in the case of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from diesel cars. The RDE test is certainly more relevant than CD test cycles, but currently certification RDE cycles will not necessarily include the most extreme low speed congested or low temperature conditions which are likely to be more challenging for NOx after-treatment systems. To build understanding of the emissions and fuel consumption performance of the latest available diesel passenger cars, Concawe has conducted a study of the performance of three vehicle types. Two of the vehicles featured urea-dosed Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) after-treatment, whilst the third was fitted with a Lean NOx…
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Demonstration of Fuel Economy Benefit of Friction Modifier Additives via Fuel-to-Lubricant Transfer in Euro-5 Gasoline Fleet

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions UK-Sarah M. Remmert, Alison Felix-Moore, Steven R. Nattrass, Ian Buttery, Pauline Ziman, Sue J. Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2611
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Improved fuel economy is a key measure of performance in the automotive industry, driven both by market demand and increasingly stringent government emissions regulations. In this climate, targeting even small benefits to fuel consumption (FC) can have a large impact when considering fleet average CO2 emissions. Lubricant properties over the course of an oil drain interval (ODI) directly influence long-term fuel consumption. Furthermore, viscosity control gasoline additives have been shown to provide FC benefit via fuel-to-lubricant transfer. This study investigated whether consistently fueling with gasoline containing friction modifier (FM) additives could provide a long-term fuel consumption benefit via a lubricant transfer mechanism.A robust fleet trial method was employed to quantify fuel consumption benefits of two friction modifier additive packages relative to a baseline deposit control additive (DCA) package in a 95 RON, E5 fuel. FC was measured for 32 market relevant vehicles over the course of a European ODI. The test was performed with 12,000 mile on-road accumulation in a 60/40 urban/high speed driving route. Changes in FC were measured periodically on a chassis dynamometer…
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The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

Shell Global Solutions-Dorothea Liebig, Winfried Krane, Pauline Ziman
Volkswagen AG-Thomas Garbe, Martin Hoenig
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
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The Impact of Gasoline Octane on Fuel Economy in Modern Vehicles

Shell Global Solutions U.K.-Christopher Beck, Paul Stevenson, Pauline Ziman
Published 2006-10-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents recently derived relationships between gasoline octane quality and vehicle fuel economy measured on a chassis dynamometer. Data are reported from a number of vehicle types, which include both port injection and direct injection technologies. Fuel economy was measured over a fixed test cycle on a matrix of ten fuels. Hence we established an engine/vehicle response to changes in gasoline octane number, in terms of fuel economy. This is comparable with previously reported relationships between gasoline octane quality and engine power output. Finally, fuel economy was measured over a number of industry-standard test cycles, when retail fuels of different octane grade were tested in vehicles. Statistically significant changes in vehicle fuel economy were measured for vehicles that ran on different fuel grades.For over 40 years the octane number of gasoline has been defined by measurements of RON (Research Octane Number) and MON (Motor Octane Number), made in a CFR (Cooperative Fuel Research) engine. Conventional wisdom acknowledges a direct and positive relationship between octane quality and potential engine performance; for example, in modern knock…
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