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Impact of Demanding Low Temperature Urban Operation on the Real Driving Emissions Performance of Three European Diesel Passenger Cars

Concawe, Belgium-Heather Hamje
Eni SpA, Italy-Corrado Fittavolini, Leonardo Pellegrini
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In Europe, the development and implementation of new regulatory test procedures including the chassis dynamometer (CD) based World Harmonised Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure, has been driven by the close scrutiny that real driving emissions and fuel consumption from passenger cars have come under in recent times. This is due to a divergence between stated certification performance and measured on-road performance, and has been most pointed in the case of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from diesel cars. The RDE test is certainly more relevant than CD test cycles, but currently certification RDE cycles will not necessarily include the most extreme low speed congested or low temperature conditions which are likely to be more challenging for NOx after-treatment systems. To build understanding of the emissions and fuel consumption performance of the latest available diesel passenger cars, Concawe has conducted a study of the performance of three vehicle types. Two of the vehicles featured urea-dosed Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) after-treatment, whilst the third was fitted with a Lean NOx…
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Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

No Affiliation-Keeley Burke
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Michael Gee, Rod Williams
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis. One of the vehicles was particularly sensitive to the vehicle warm-up rate which caused significant variations in catalyst light-off strategy within the engine management system (EMS). This was seen to cause up to 2.3% variability in fuel consumption.…
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Open Access

A Chemical and Morphological Study of Diesel Injector Nozzle Deposits - Insights into their Formation and Growth Mechanisms

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Imperial College-Catriona McGivery, Jun Jiang, Finn Giulliani, Ben Britton
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Nicholas J. Rounthwaite, Rod Williams
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0798
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques. Deposits produced in the injector nozzles of the industry standard fouling test (CEC F-98-08 DW10B bench engine) were compared with those formed in a vehicle driven on a chassis dynamometer, using a drive cycle more representative of real world vehicle conditions, to explore the…
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Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

SAE International Journal of Engines

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Michael Gee, Rod Williams
University of Bath-Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2328
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles. The engine controller of a 2.0L diesel vehicle with active de-NOx and a particulate filter (DPF) has been monitored over 13,700km of driving. The engine speed/torque operating points showed that both the NEDC and WLTC fail to capture the complete static and dynamic usage…
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Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Athanasios Dimaratos
BP Europa SE-Thomas Bartsch
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies. The tests were conducted in two driving cycles, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Worldwide harmonised Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), which is considered closer to real driving and is going to be the new type approval test in…
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Open Access

Linking the Physical Manifestation and Performance Effects of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions-Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0892
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them.In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1].In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles. During both studies, deposits were compared after fouling and after subsequent cleaning using a novel fuel borne detergent.In all cases, the use of fuel borne detergents quickly recovered >75% of power lost during the fouling stage of the tests. SEM images showed…
Open Access

Formation and Removal of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Cars

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Rod Williams, Alastair Smith, Ian Buttery
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1684
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Deposits forming in the injector nozzle holes of modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, causing reduced or less efficient combustion, resulting in power loss and increased fuel consumption.A study of the factors affecting injector nozzle tip temperature, a parameter critical to nozzle deposit formation, has been conducted in a Peugeot DW10 passenger car bench engine, as used in the industry standard CEC F-098 injector nozzle deposit test, [1].The findings of the bench engine study were applied in the development of a Chassis Dynamometer (CD) based vehicle test method using Euro 5 compliant vehicles. The developed test method was refined to tune the conditions as far as practicable towards a realistic driving pattern whilst maintaining sufficient deposit forming tendency to enable test duration to be limited to a reasonable period.The test method developed was applied to a fleet of Euro 4 and 5 compliant vehicles enabling the relative deposit sensitivity of the fleet to be assessed. Subsequently the deposit removal performance of conventional and novel diesel detergents was…
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Impact of FAME Quality on Injector Nozzle Fouling in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

Shell Global Solutions-Renate Uitz, Mark Brewer, Rod Williams
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
The effects of various aspects of FAME quality and sources on injector nozzle fouling, when blended into diesel were investigated systematically.The B10 fuels used for this investigation are representative of available FAME qualities in the market. The variables used to assess quality were age, water content, saturation level, monoglycerides level, antioxidant content and feedstock.The B10 fuels were tested in a PSA (Peugeot Société Anonyme) DW10 bench engine operating to a modified version of the CEC (Coordinating European Council) F-98 Nozzle Coking Test. Power loss was used as the primary indicator of nozzle fouling.Power loss did not exceed 1% with any of the B10 blends tested, which is within the repeatability limits.These results show that this set of B10s, formulated with market quality and worst-case quality FAME, did not cause measurable injector nozzle fouling in this modified version of the industry standard engine test. This suggests that the majority of FAME in the market should not cause injector nozzle fouling, when used at B10 level.
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Development of a Nozzle Fouling Test for Additive Rating in Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engines

Shell Global Solutions UK Limited-Rod Williams
Published 2002-10-21 by SAE International in United States
Testing the performance and general fitness for purpose of diesel fuel and additives in test engines is a key part of the fuel and additive formulation and development process. This testing activity ensures that new fuels and additives satisfy the expected performance characteristics derived in the formulation stage of development; be this maintaining, or improving standard engine operating condition.Test development at Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park has examined the response of the Mercedes-Benz OM366LA truck engine to injector nozzle fouling. Findings have shown that the performance of fuels and detergent additives can be effectively assessed, hence facilitating differentiation, by visual injector needle cleanliness rating. The injector needle deposits generated in short tests in the bench engine are appraised using the Co-ordinating Research Council method documented in CRC manual No. 18, (2).This paper documents the test development undertaken to optimise the test cycle and explore the effect of engine set up and other variables in order to attain a robust test methodology. Test results are summarised, statistically analysed and discussed. These results demonstrate the response…
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