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Impact of FAME Content on the Regeneration Frequency of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Dimitris Katsaounis, Christos Samaras, Savas Geivanidis, Zissis Samaras
Concawe-Kenneth Rose, Heather Hamje, Liesbeth Jansen, Corrado Fittavolini, Richard Clark, Maria Dolores Cardenas Almena
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1605
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Modern diesel vehicles utilize two technologies, one fuel based and one hardware based, that have been motivated by recent European legislation: diesel fuel blends containing Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). Oxygenates, like FAME, are known to reduce PM formation in the combustion chamber and reduce the amount of soot that must be filtered from the engine exhaust by the DPF. This effect is also expected to lengthen the time between DPF regenerations and reduce the fuel consumption penalty that is associated with soot loading and regeneration.This study investigated the effect of FAME content, up to 50% v/v (B50), in diesel fuel on the DPF regeneration frequency by repeatedly running a Euro 5 multi-cylinder bench engine over the European regulatory cycle (NEDC) until a specified soot loading limit had been reached. The results verify the expected reduction of engine-out particulate mass (PM) emissions with increasing FAME content and the reduction in fuel economy penalty associated with reducing the frequency of DPF regenerations. Fuel dilution measurements on lubricant samples taken from the…
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Biodiesel Stability and its Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Savas Geivanidis, Zissis Samaras
Toyota Motor Corporation-Yutaka Iida, Hiromichi Hashimoto
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The effects of biodiesel oxidation stability on diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) behavior were investigated using newly developed test rig and methodology. On the test rig, biodiesel blend fuels were circulated through a fuel tank and a common rail injection system. Fuel injected from typical diesel injectors was returned into the fuel tank to enhance the speed of fuel degradation. The results showed that injector deposits could be reproduced on a test rig. It was observed that injector body temperature increase accelerates the degradation of fuel and therefore gives earlier FIE failure. Fuel renewal could partially restore the injection quantity after complete failure at low injection pressure, thus showing a potential cleaning effect on injector deposits when refueling a car. Fuel quality was monitored during the rig test to investigate the degradation trends and it was seen that there are two major steps during fuel deterioration: an oxidation followed by an acidification together with increasing water content inside the fuel.
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Accuracy of Exhaust Emissions Measurements on Vehicle Bench

EMPA-Philippe Devaux
French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research -Robert Joumard, Jean-Marc André, Stéphanie Lacour
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-05-0373
Published 2006-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Ten European laboratories worked together to study the influence of a lot of parameters of the measurement of light vehicle emission factors on vehicle bench, in order to improve the accuracy, reliability and representativeness of emission factors: driving patterns (driving cycles, gear choice behavior, driver and cycle following), vehicle-related parameters (technical characteristics of the vehicle, emission stability, emission degradation, fuel properties, vehicle cooling and preconditioning), vehicle sampling (method, sample size), and laboratory-related parameters (ambient temperature and humidity, dynamometer setting, dilution ratio, heated line sampling temperature, PM filter preconditioning, response time, dilution air). The results are based on literature synthesis, on about 2700 specific tests with 183 vehicles and on the reprocessing of more than 900 tests. These tests concern the regulated atmospheric pollutants and pre-Euro to Euro 4 vehicles. We did not find any influence of 7 parameters, and find only a qualitative influence for 7 other parameters. 6 parameters have a clear and quantifiable influence and 5 among them allow us to design correction factors to normalize emission measurements: gearshift strategy, vehicle mileage, ambient…