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Impact tests (3) Active safety systems (2) Fatal injuries (2) Aged (1) Air pollution (1) Anthropometric test devices (1) Calibration (1) Crashes (1) Electric vehicles (1) Identification numbers (1) Imaging and visualization (1) Injuries (1) Mathematical models (1) Side impact crashes (1) Technical review (1) Test equipment and instrumentation (1) Vehicle drivers (1)


Fornells, Alba (5) Parera, Núria (5) Adalian, Celine (1) Ferrer, Adria (1) Fiorentino, Anita (1) Malivern, Melcior (1) Mensa, Genís (1) Sanchez, Jacob (1)


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Applus + Idiada Spain (4) Applus+ IDIADA, Spain (1) Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (1)


Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2017 (2) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (2) 25th SAE BRASIL International Congress and Display (1)

Senior Drivers, Bicyclists and Pedestrian Behavior Related with Traffic Accidents and Injuries

  • Applus + Idiada Spain-Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer
  • Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Anita Fiorentino
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems. The first step was to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures. To this end, accident databases were studied and compared regarding the more critical accident scenarios involving the elderly and their injuries as well as their behavior and the transport modes that represent higher risk. This paper presents a novel statistical study of the accident database in Spain and provides an overview of the main accident situations involving elderly drivers, bicyclists or pedestrians as well as the most typical causes of injury and its severity. Moreover, the in-depth analysis of scenarios, actions and law violations carried out makes it possible to identify the travelling behavior of the elderly. Differences between ages and gender were also identified. The conclusions match with general beliefs and with literature information. Finally a general comparison with results from other countries was done.

Camera Alignment System for Passive Safety Crash Tests

  • Applus + Idiada Spain-Genís Mensa, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the use of high-speed digital cameras to acquire relevant information is a standard for all laboratories and facilities working in passive safety crash testing. The recorded information from the cameras is used to develop and improve the design of vehicles in order to make them safer. Measurements such as velocities, accelerations and distances are computed from high-speed images captured during the tests and represent remarkable data for the post-crash analysis. Therefore, having the exact same position of the cameras is a key factor to be able to compare all the values that are extracted from the images of the tests carried out within a long-term passive safety project. However, since working with several customers involves a large amount of different cars and tests, crash facilities have to readapt for every test mode making it difficult for them to reproduce the correct and precise position of the high-speed cameras throughout the same project. Thus, the system developed through this work uses an image processing algorithm to locate the cameras by taking images from at least four sides of the laboratory with multiple cameras, avoiding occlusion problems, by recognizing the binary square markers attached to the high-speed camera housing. Furthermore, relevant information such as the serial numbers, focal lengths and/or calibration files; can be stored in each camera fiducial marker in order to increase the accuracy of the test repeatability.

Safety Protocol for Crash Tests Involving Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

  • Applus + Idiada Spain-Alba Fornells, Núria Parera
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
Over recent decades climate change and air pollution have become an increasingly important issue and so the transportation policies of many countries aim to make vehicles more efficient and promote the development and use of electric vehicles. According to the European Automotive Manufacturers Association, the registration of electric vehicles showed a substantial increase of 160.5%, that makes stakeholders assume a realistic market share for new electrically chargeable vehicles to be in the range of 2 to 8% by 2020 to 2025, based on today’s market.

Study of Differences in Overall Ratings in New Car Assessment Programs

  • Applus + Idiada Spain-Celine Adalian, Alba Fornells, Núria Parera
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
In the 70’s, to reduce vehicle crash fatalities, NHTSA launched a Program, called NCAP, to compare the safety of cars. This Program was copied in Europe and around the world. It has been demonstrated that this kind of public assessment has forced OEM’s to invest in safety and to develop safer vehicles. Nowadays, NCAPs exist for nearly all regions around the world; all of them with the aim of improving vehicle safety. They apply the philosophy of an “overall rating”. In that way the information aims to be clearer and more general and will help to compare cars. Nevertheless, even though in every NCAP the overall assessment is given by a unique star rating, the specifications and requirements in each protocol are different. Each NCAP has been adapted to each region’s conditions, accidentology and traffic and therefore assessment criteria have their own peculiarities. Accordingly, differences in ratings may have significant consequences for the design of the vehicle’s equipment or structure. A general study about the differences in NCAPs around the world has been carried out. In this paper, the protocols’ requirements and specifications used in each test will be presented and described for each NCAP program. Furthermore, NCAP assessments are constantly changing and becoming more and more challenging using new dummies, following new test protocols, introducing active safety systems or rear seat evaluations. The evolution of the protocols will also be presented and special attention will be devoted to the current and future protocols with the new requirements added.

Full Instrumentation of Side Impact Pole and In-Depth Analysis of Vehicle Structural Behavior

  • Applus+ IDIADA, Spain-Jacob Sanchez, Melcior Malivern, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
  • Technical Paper
  • 2016-36-0128
Published 2016-10-25 by SAE International in United States
In order to obtain more information from the side impact tests, a pole was fully instrumented with triaxle load cells. Also, a sled modification was carried out providing a sub-frame view of the vehicle during the entire test and making possible to compare the structure and element deformations with the obtained data.