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An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm used in heavy commercial vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Hemantkumar Rathi
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Sonu Paroche
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2550
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm. This is significant reduce in cost of material and assembly procedure. A 2-d simulation and finite element…
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Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-ABHOY CHANDRA
VE Commercial Vehicle-Abhishek pyasi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2411
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India. However, the passenger demand is not so consistent in this industry due to seasonality and hence is the operator earnings,…
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Frame Design of a Passenger Vehicle of M3 Category Using Design of Experiments

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Mantha Kaushik Bharadwaj, Nitin Kumar Patil
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Chassis frame of a passenger vehicle is one of the primary load bearing components of the vehicle. All the aggregates such as engine, radiator, fuel tank, EATS, air tanks, body and cowl etc. are mounted on to the frame. It should have sufficient stiffness and strength to withstand the static and dynamic loads. At the same time it should also be light in weight as it helps in reducing the fuel consumption and emissions coming out of the vehicle. The main objective of this work is to design a chassis frame of a passenger vehicle of M3 category using Design of Experiments by considering the stiffness and the natural frequency of a similar type of vehicle’s frame (Benchmark) as the target values i.e. the final design of the frame should match the stiffness and natural frequency values of the benchmarked frame with a specified tolerance set as per the general methodology of frame design. Apart from these, the frame’s design is also optimized to attain a minimum weight by adding/removing reinforcements etc. in order to…
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Life Estimation of Vehicle Sub-Systems Using Vibrational Fatigue

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Srinivas Kurna, Nikhil Soman
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Most popular practice for analyzing the Subsystem failures in commercial vehicles is physical testing. These physical tests are carried out by three tests; Endurance testing, Accelerated Endurance Testing and Rig test simulation. All the three methods are costly and repetitive iterations of these tests is not economical. Therefore, in our organization, we established a method in virtual domain in order to reduce the repetitive iterations and also reduction in time consumed per iteration. General practice in our organization for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) calculation was inclusive of Model preparation, Transient analysis using Nastran. The results from the Transient analysis are used for performing fatigue analysis in fatigue software. In this process, Transient analysis and Model preparation are very much time consuming processes. Model preparation cannot be reduced, but to reduce the transient analysis time, we established a method in frequency domain (vibrational fatigue) [1].For vibrational fatigue analysis we used Nastran for Frequency Response Analysis and Spectral for Fatigue Analysis. For Vibrational fatigue we needed Modal stresses, Frequency Transfer Functions and Power Spectral Density (PSD) data.…
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Development and Optimization of Variable Flow AC Compressor for Commercial Vehicles to Reduce Parasitic Losses and Improving Efficiency of HVAC System

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Ankit Kumar Shukla, Aashish Bhargava, Sachin K S, Rajesh Jain
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In the modern era of commercial vehicle industry, passenger and driver comfort is one of the major parameters that improves vehicle running time which leads to fleet owner’s profitability. Air conditioning system is one such system whose primary function is to provide the required cooling inside the cabin in hot weather conditions. An Air-conditioned truck cabin creates a comfortable environment for the driver which increases his efficiency and reduces fatigue.An AC compressor consumes power directly from the engine affecting fuel economy and vehicle performance. With ever increasing demand for energy efficient systems and thermal comfort in automobiles, AC systems should be able to deliver the required cooling performance with minimum power consumption. Therefore, reducing AC power consumption in vehicles is one of the key challenges faced by climate control engineers. Variable AC compressor is a technology to decrease parasitic losses in an engine resulting in higher energy efficiency.The application of Variable AC compressors in commercial vehicles is new in India. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to study the behavior & performance of a…
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Performance Analysis & Optimization of Engine Cooling System by Using Electronically Controlled Thermostat for Improving Thermal Efficiency

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Rupesh Bakatwar, Kevin Nesamani, Aashish Bhargava, Rajesh Jain
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The engine coolant temperature influences fuel consumption, power, emissions and mechanical load on the components. The optimization of these variables does not permit a fixed temperature value if there are different speed and load states. The optimization requires a temperature range that corresponds to each operating point. A conventional wax thermostat has a wide temperature control range. The start to open and full open temperature values depend on the mechanical properties of the spring and wax material. Hence, there is no control on the coolant temperature band in real time.This paper deals with the performance analysis & optimization of engine cooling system by using electronically controlled coolant thermostat for improving engine thermal efficiency. To integrate this technology with an existing engine, some design modifications have been made in the thermostat housing mounted on the engine cylinder head and radiator inlet hosepipe. An electronic control unit was developed & programmed in-house to control thermostat variable opening with respect to coolant temperature.The system has been evaluated on a vehicle to analyze the effect of raising engine operating…
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A Comparative Study on Non-Linear Analysis Using Explicit and Implicit Techniques & Fatigue Life Estimation of Semi-Elliptical Leaf Spring

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Srinivas Kurna, Akhil Mehndiratta
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Leaf spring is a vital suspension component, such that the failure of leaf spring could cause fatal accidents. Due to frequent failures of leaf springs on vehicles, a method is developed to perform the numerical analysis using explicit solver which provides insightful analysis of leaf springs to prevent the occurrence of failure during engineering design. Since fatigue life assessment of leaf springs is a significant aspect during the design stage and due to the limitation of non-compatibility of output file of explicit solver for fatigue analysis, various studies are conducted and implicit solver is considered to perform FEA simulation of leaf spring. The present study delineates comparison of non-linear analysis of semi-elliptical leaf spring using explicit solver with that of implicit solver. Analysis using implicit solver gives us an advantage to export the model in fatigue life estimation solver which is not possible using explicit solver. The aim of this study is to establish correlation between FEA simulation (both explicit and implicit methods) and Rig test data for a semi-elliptical suspension leaf spring. This method would…
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Turbocharger Selection in HD BSIV EGR Engine with the Help of Analytical Method and Correlation with Actual Testing

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Hardik Lakhlani
Published 2017-10-16 by SAE International in United States
Turbocharging has become an important method for increasing the power output of diesel engines. A perfectly matched turbocharger can increase the engine efficiency and decrease the BSFC. For turbocharger matching, engine manufacturers are dependent on the turbocharger manufacturers. In this paper, an analytical model is presented which could help engine manufacturers to analyze the performance of turbocharger for different load and ambient condition using compressor and turbine map provided by turbo manufacturers. The analytical model calculates the required pressure at inlet and exhaust manifold for fixed vane turbocharger with waste gate using inputs like BSFC, lambda, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger efficiency and heat loss, that are available with the engine manufacturer. The calculated pressure ratio across compressor and expansion ratio across turbine along with the mass flow rate through them were plotted on the compressor and turbine maps for theoretically analyzing the symmetric turbocharger performance. The results of this analytical model are validated with test bed data of exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) and non-EGR engines, which shows good correlation.
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Structural Strength Verification of Rubber Ended Leaf Spring Suspension in Commercial Vehicle via FEM

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Ruchik Tank, Krishna Srikanth Achanta
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Srinivas Kurna
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
At the time of invention of road coaches, the vehicle consisted only of an axle with wheels and a body attached. Smooth roads were built for a better ride comfort however they were not consistent. The road coaches were too bumpy and uncomfortable for the passenger along with the driver who was not able to control the vehicle. That's why the engineers had to shift their attention to the suspension system for a better ride comfort and handling.The technology has advanced with time so as the suspension system. Rubber ended type leaf spring is one of the suspension system types available in the industry. The main function of a suspension in order of importance is as below: 1Acts as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver and passengers;2Maximizes the contact between the tires and the road surface to provide steering stability with good handling;3Protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear.Design of Rubber ended Type Leaf springs is a combination of semi-elliptical leaf springs and Rubber mounts at…
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Truck Steering Component and Linkages Analysis Using Finite Element Method

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Sajal Jain, Palish Raja, Laxman Vishwakarma
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Srinivas Kurna
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In an automobile, main function of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle on a desired course. Steering system consists of various components & linkages. Using these linkages, the torque from steering wheel is transferred to tyre which results in turning of the vehicle. Over the life of vehicle, these steering components are subjected to various loading conditions. As steering components are safety critical parts in the vehicle, therefore they should not fail while running because it will cause vehicle breakdown.In commercial vehicle segment, vehicle breakdown means delay in freight delivery which results in huge loss to costumer. Therefore, while designing steering components one should consider all the possible loadings condition those are possible. But, it can’t be done through theoretical calculation. Therefore, physical tests have to be carried out to validate design of steering system, which is very costly & time-consuming process.Hence, in our organization we are using finite element method to validate design of different components virtually. In this process strength of steering component & linkages is evaluated…
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