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Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

U.S. Army TARDEC-Dariusz Mikulski
Clemson University-Fangjian Li, John R. Wagner, Yue Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors. To deal with inaccurate information due to a V2C cyber attack, a RoboTrust algorithm is designed to analyze vehicle trustworthiness and eliminate information with low credit. Finally, a human operator scheduling algorithm is proposed when the number of abnormal UGVs exceeds the limit of what human operators can handle concurrently. Representative simulation results…
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Flame, Smoke, and Toxicity Energy Attenuating Materials for Use in Military Vehicles

U.S. Army TARDEC-Julie Klima, Rebecca Marquardt
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) researched flame, smoke, and toxicity requirements for energy attenuating (EA) materials for use in U.S. Army Ground System Vehicle (GSV) applications. The purpose of this project is to reduce secondary thermal injury as a result of introducing EA materials into the military vehicle’s interior. Commercial-off-the-shelf materials were evaluated for their flame, smoke, and toxicity performance using three American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards: ASTM E1354, ASTM E162, and ASTM E162. The results of this effort identified solutions which may potentially meet the needs of the Army’s unique thermal environment. TARDEC used the knowledge gained from this project to create performance specification requirements for interior head impact protective materials for us in U.S. Army vehicles.
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Durability Test Time Reduction Methods

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Army TARDEC-Mark Brudnak, James Walsh, Igor Baseski, Bryan LaRose
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0258
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Laboratory based durability simulation has become an increasingly important component of vehicle system design validation and production release. It offers several advantages over field testing which has driven its adoption in the automotive and military sectors. Among these advantages are 1) repeatability, 2) earlier testing, 3) isolation of subsystems or components and 4) ability to compress and/or accelerate the testing. In this paper we present time-domain methods and techniques adapted, implemented and used at TARDEC to reduce the time required to perform a laboratory durability test of a full vehicle system, subsystem or component. Specifically, these methods approach a durability schedule holistically by considering all events/surfaces, repeats and channels of interest. They employ the standard Generic Stress Life (GSL) approach, utilizing rain flow cycle counting and a minimum-average method of identifying segments of the events which are less severe. The mathematical methods are presented as well as a case study in which the methods are used. The case study illustrates the effectiveness of the compression methods at five different levels of retained severity. Finally, we…
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Industrial Base Sustainment through Risk Modeling with Model-Based Systems Engineering Applications

U.S. Army TARDEC-Garett Scott Patria
Lawrence Technological University-James A. Mynderse
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
There is evidence to suggest that before military equipment ever experiences sustainment delays the equipment carries state patterns within its logistics and supply chain data history that could be leveraged for risk mitigation. Analysis of these patterns can also identify new research & development (R&D) and technology transition candidates that relate the seemingly disparate activities of R&D project management and Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) management. Relating eligible R&D activities to the DMSMS risk identification phase helps stage potential sustainment risk mitigations ahead of time on the one hand, while creating additional demand and resources to mature prototypes on the other hand. Virtually generating DMSMS-linked, R&D classifications can help throughput and productivity analysts simulate a pipeline of annual research projects, so decision makers can better understand where resource constraints reside within the project management process. The paper concludes with an application that: 1) integrates lean principles into the daily management of a government agency or business, while 2) demonstrating how the parametric orchestration of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tools, via model-based systems engineering (MBSE),…
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Experimental Investigation of the Impact of In-Cylinder Pressure Oscillations on Piston Heat Transfer

SAE International Journal of Engines

U.S. Army TARDEC-Eric Gingrich
Univ of Wisconsin Madison-Daniel Janecek, Jaal Ghandhi
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9044
Published 2016-10-03 by SAE International in United States
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the impact in-cylinder pressure oscillations have on piston heat transfer. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. Measurements were made in a light-duty single-cylinder research engine operated under low temperature combustion regimes including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Conventional Diesel (CDC). The HCCI data showed a correlated trend of higher heat transfer with increased pressure oscillation strength, while the RCCI and CDC data did not. An extensive HCCI data set was acquired. The heat transfer rate - when corrected for differences in cylinder pressure and gas temperature - was found to positively correlate with increased pressure oscillations. It is important to normalize the data before drawing conclusions as the magnitude of the effect was diminished significantly by the normalization procedure.
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An Abstract Multi-Rate Method for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

U.S. Army TARDEC-Paramsothy Jayakumar
Multibody.org-James Critchley
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The design of vehicles increasingly challenges existing cost, weight, durability, and handling regimes. This challenge is further compounded by pressure to decrease or limit the duration of the design cycle. The simulation of vehicle dynamic behavior commonly applies just rigid, or better rigid and linear flexibility models to predict motions and determine load cases. However, as the boundaries of materials are pushed these are becoming insufficient to accurately predict behavior. Alternatively, complete nonlinear finite element representations of vehicle dynamics are always possible but are presently infeasible for the support of a single design under virtual test, not to mention several design iterations. To address these issues, a novel abstract multi-rate simulation method is outlined which is designed to exploit the richness of available model in the vehicle dynamics domain. The method relies on the availability of a virtual continuum of modeling fidelities and uses the fast executing low fidelity models to seed increasingly high fidelity models which execute concurrently in different regions of the time domain. As a result, discontinuities will appear in the states…
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Combining Hybrid Electric Technology with Multi-axle Drivelines

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Army TARDEC-Alexander Kovnat
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1899
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The paper presented herein, combines various aspects of hybrid electric powertrain technology with the mechanics of multi-axle drivelines. Starting with a review of why automotive engineers desire to implement electrified powertrain technology, the paper will then explore the reasons for multi-axle drivetrains and finally, will explore the benefits and challenges of combining hybrid-electric and multiaxle driveline technology.
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Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

U.S. Army TARDEC-Walter Bryzik
Wayne State University-N. A. Henein, A. Kastury, K. Natti
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12.Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC. The first is to advance LPPC, while keeping the other parameters constant. This was found to improve…
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Robust Control Techniques Enabling Duty Cycle Experiments Utilizing a 6-DOF Crewstation Motion Base, a Full Scale Combat Hybrid Electric Power System, and Long Distance Internet Communications

U.S. Army TARDEC-Mark Brudnak
Science Applications International Corporation-Marc Compere, Jarrett Goodell, Miguel Simon, Wilford Smith
Published 2006-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The RemoteLink effort supports the U.S. Army's objective for developing and fielding next generation hybrid-electric combat vehicles. It is a distributed soldier-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop environment with a 6-DOF motion base for operator realism, a full-scale combat hybrid electric power system, and an operational context provided by OneSAF. The driver/gunner crewstations rest on one of two 6-DOF motion bases at the U.S. Army TARDEC Simulation Laboratory (TSL). The hybrid power system is located 2,450 miles away at the TARDEC Power and Energy System Integration Laboratory (P&E SIL). The primary technical challenge in the RemoteLink is to operate both laboratories together in real time, coupled over the Internet, to generate a realistic power system duty cycle.A topology has been chosen such that the laboratories have real hardware interacting with simulated components at both locations to guarantee local closed loop stability. This layout is robust to Internet communication failures and ensures the long distance network delay does not enter the local feedback loops. The TSL states and P&E SIL states will diverge due to (1) significant communications delays…
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Assessment of JP-8 and DF-2 Evaporation Rate and Cetane Number Differences on a Military Diesel Engine

U.S. Army TARDEC-Peter Schihl, Laura Hoogterp, Harold Pangilinan
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Army utilizes both world wide available diesel fuel and jet fuel (JP-8) for ground mobility applications and must maintain such fuel flexibility in order to meet mission requirements. Understanding of combustion system sensitivity to JP-8 is not well documented for such vehicle applications and thus the current knowledge base on standard diesel spray combustion must be extrapolated in order to assess fuel effects on military combustion systems. In particular, the liquid length of developed, high pressure fuel sprays is a key combustion affecting parameter that is sensitive to fuel type, the fuel delivery system, and combustion chamber thermodynamic condition. This parameter provides targeting information that is employed for assessing bulk jet mixing, cylinder pressure rise (evaporation rate), jet-wall interaction, and the formation of nitrous oxide and particulate matter.For practical fuels it is difficult to analytically assess physical properties necessary to predict liquid length and thus well understood pure hydrocarbon fuels must act as surrogates. Typically, handbooks of such surrogate fuel thermodynamic properties are referenced to determine temperature and pressure dependence through use of…
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