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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

Repsol-Javier Ariztegui
Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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A Mathematical Model for the Vapour Composition and Flammability of Gasoline - Diesel Mixtures in a Fuel Tank

Repsol-Javier Ariztegui
Concawe-Heather Hamje, David Rickeard
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this, but a practical concern is the flammability of the headspace vapours in the vehicle fuel tank. Gasoline is much more volatile than diesel so, at most ambient temperatures, the headspace vapours in the tank are too rich to burn. A gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank therefore can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model is presented that predicts the flammability of the headspace vapours in a tank containing mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel. Fourteen hydrocarbons and ethanol represent the volatile components. Heavier components are treated as non-volatile diluents in the liquid phase. The non-ideality of the blends of hydrocarbons and ethanol is accounted for using activity coefficients. Predictions for dry vapour pressure equivalent (DVPE), vapour phase composition and flammability are…
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Vapour Space Flammability Considerations for Gasoline Compression Ignition Vehicles Operating on “Dieseline” Blends.

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Repsol-Javier Ariztegui
Concawe-Heather Hamje, David Rickeard
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2266
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been identified as a technology which could give both high efficiency and relatively low engine-out emissions. The introduction of any new vehicle technology requires widespread availability of appropriate fuels. It would be ideal therefore if GCI vehicles were able to operate using the standard grade of gasoline that is available at the pump. However, in spite of recent progress, operation at idle and low loads still remains a formidable challenge, given the relatively low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. One conceivable solution would be to use both diesel and gasoline, either in separate tanks or blended as a single fuel (“dieseline”). However, with this latter option, a major concern for dieseline would be whether a flammable mixture could exist in the vapour space in the fuel tank. It is expected that in a practical scenario, the ambient temperature would generally exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) temperature of diesel/gasoline blends. A non-flammable vapour could still be assured, however, if the temperature in the fuel tank were above…
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Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

Repsol-Javier Ariztegui Cortijo
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Athanasios Dimaratos
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies. The tests were conducted in two driving cycles, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Worldwide harmonised Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), which is considered closer to real driving and is going to be the new type approval test in…
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