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Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Erin Renoll
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-01-0TOC
Published 2019-05-22 by SAE International in United States
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed, or transmitted, in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of SAE International. For permission and licensing requests, contact SAE Permissions, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA; e-mail: copyright@sae.org; phone: 724-772-4028; fax: 724-772-9765. Printed in USA Information contained in this work has been obtained by SAE International from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither SAE International nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither SAE International nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that SAE International and its authors are supplying information, but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.
 

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sam Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey
Aramco Research Center-Jong Lee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and a split injection strategy was developed to promote partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various low reactivity gasoline-range fuels were compared with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) for steady-state engine performance and emissions. Specially, particulate matter (PM) emissions were examined for their mass, size and number concentrations, and further characterized by organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. As more fuel-efficient PPCI combustion was promoted, a slight reduction in fuel consumption was observed for all gasoline-range fuels, which also had higher heating values than ULSD. Since mixing-controlled combustion dominated the latter part of the combustion process, hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were only slightly increased with the gasoline-range fuels. In contrast, soot emissions were significantly reduced with the gasoline-range fuels, including a ~70% reduction in micro soot sensor measurements and a >50% reduction in smoke meter measurements. All gasoline-range fuel PM samples were also found to contain higher amount of volatile species and organic carbon fractions compared…
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High Load Expansion of Catalytic EGR-Loop Reforming under Stoichiometric Conditions for Increased Efficiency in Spark Ignition Engines

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James P. Szybist, Josh Pihl, Shean Huff, Brian Kaul
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The use of fuel reformate from catalytic processes is known to have beneficial effects on the spark-ignited (SI) combustion process through enhanced dilution tolerance and decreased combustion duration, but in many cases reformate generation can incur a significant fuel penalty. In a previous investigation, the researchers showed that, by controlling the boundary conditions of the reforming catalyst, it was possible to minimize the thermodynamic expense of the reforming process, and in some cases, realize thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where exhaust heat is converted to usable chemical energy. The previous work, however, focused on a relatively light-load engine operating condition of 2000 rpm, 4 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The present investigation demonstrates that this operating strategy is applicable to higher engine loads, including boosted operation up to 10 bar BMEP. By controlling the reforming catalyst boundary conditions, it is possible to achieve fuel reforming without experiencing high temperature exotherms that could be damaging to the catalyst. Additionally, the thermodynamic air handling consequences of operating a highly dilute strategy at…
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Engine-Aftertreatment in Closed-Loop Modeling for Heavy Duty Truck Emissions Control

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Zhiming Gao, Dean Deter, David Smith, Josh Pihl, C. Stuart Daw, James Parks
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
An engine-aftertreatment computational model was developed to support in-loop performance simulations of tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption associated with a range of heavy-duty (HD) truck drive cycles. For purposes of this study, the engine-out exhaust dynamics were simulated with a combination of steady-state engine maps and dynamic correction factors that accounted for recent engine operating history. The engine correction factors were approximated as dynamic first-order lags associated with the thermal inertia of the major engine components and the rate at which engine-out exhaust temperature and composition vary as combustion heat is absorbed or lost to the surroundings. The aftertreatment model included catalytic monolith components for diesel exhaust oxidation, particulate filtration, and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with urea. Both the engine and aftertreatment models have been calibrated with dynamometer measurements from a commercial 2010-certificated 15-L Cummins diesel engine. The fuel consumption engine map with the reduced data is attached in the appendix. Simulations with the combined engine and aftertreatment models above appear to reveal important trends among the fuel efficiency, emissions control, power…
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Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Goutham Kukkadapu, Russell A. Whitesides
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C. Blendstocks needed to be soluble in diesel fuel, have a toxicity no worse than conventional diesel, not be corrosive, and be compatible with fuel system elastomers. Additionally, cloud point or freezing point below 0°C was required. Screening based on blendstock properties…
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Analytical Examination of the Relationship between Fuel Properties, Engine Efficiency, and R Factor Values

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-C. Scott Sluder
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The variability in gasoline energy content, though most frequently not a consumer concern, is an issue of concern for vehicle manufacturers in demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements. Advancements in both vehicle technology, test methodology, and fuel formulations have increased the level of visibility and concern with regard to the energy content of fuels used for regulatory testing.The R factor was introduced into fuel economy calculations for vehicle certification in the late 1980s as a means of addressing batch-to-batch variations in the heating value of certification fuels and the resulting variations in fuel economy results. Although previous studies have investigated values of the R factor for modern vehicles through experimentation, subsequent engine studies have made clear that it is difficult to distinguish between the confounding factors that influence engine efficiency when R is being studied experimentally.The present study focuses on an analytical approach to examining the heating value effects so that R values can be studied without the influence of confounding effects of other fuel properties. Data previously published for a 1.6-liter naturally-aspirated engine are used…
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Additive Manufacturing for Designers: A Primer

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Dr. Amelia (Amy) M. Elliott
North Carolina A&T State Univ.-Cynthia Waters
  • Book
  • T-142
Published 2019-02-15 by SAE International in United States

Additive Manufacturing, also known as AM or 3D printing, is a class of manufacturing processes that create objects by shaping material layer by layer. Having demonstrated the ability to produce miraculously complex geometries, it is broadly claimed that AM will have endless applications as the technology improves. However, underneath the hype surrounding this technology is a world of nuance and constraints as well as highly strategic applications.

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Characterization of GDI PM during Vehicle Start-Stop Operation

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John M. Storey, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Shean Huff, John Thomas, Mary Eibl, Faustine Li
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
As the fuel economy regulations increase in stringency, many manufacturers are implementing start-stop operation to enhance vehicle fuel economy. During start-stop operation, the engine shuts off when the vehicle is stationary for more than a few seconds. When the brake is released by the driver, the engine restarts. Depending on traffic conditions, start-stop operation can result in fuel savings from a few percent to close to 10%. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are also increasingly available on light-duty vehicles. While GDI engines offer fuel economy advantages over port fuel injected (PFI) engines, they also tend to have higher PM emissions, particularly during start-up transients. Thus, there is interest in evaluating the effect of start-stop operation on PM emissions. In this study, a 2.5L GDI vehicle was operated over the FTP75 drive cycle. Runs containing cold starts (FTP-75 cycle Phases 1 & 2) and multiple runs containing hot starts (FTP-75 cycle Phases 3 & 4) were performed each day. Note that the FTP-75 Phases 3 & 4 are identical to Phases 1 & 2 except that…
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Estimation of the Fuel Efficiency Potential of Six Gasoline Blendstocks Identified by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Program

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-C. Scott Sluder
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Six blendstocks identified by the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines Program were used to prepare fuel blends using a fixed blendstock for oxygenate blending and a target RON of 97. The blendstocks included ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, diisobutylene, and a bioreformate surrogate. The blends were analyzed and used to establish interaction factors for a non-linear molar blending model that was used to predict RON and MON of volumetric blends of the blendstocks up to 35 vol%. Projections of efficiency increase, volumetric fuel economy increase, and tailpipe CO2 emissions decrease were produced using two different estimation techniques to evaluate the potential benefits of the blendstocks. Ethanol was projected to provide the greatest benefits in efficiency and tailpipe CO2 emissions, but at intermediate levels of volumetric fuel economy increase over a smaller range of blends than other blendstocks. A bioreformate surrogate blendstock was projected to provide the greatest increase in volumetric fuel economy and the lowest increase in efficiency. Tailpipe CO2 emissions for blends of the bioreformate surrogate were higher at all blend levels compared to the…
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Continuous Particulate Filter State of Health Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Sensing

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Vitaly Prikhodko, James Parks, John Storey
CTS Corporation-Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Andrew Herman
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means for interrogating the condition of the filter itself. This study investigated the use of RF sensors for the continuous measurement of filter trapping efficiency, which was compared to downstream measurements with an AVL Microsoot Sensor, and a PM sampling probe simulating the geometry and installation configuration of a conventional PM sensor. The study included several particulate filter failure modes, both above and below the OBD threshold. The results confirmed the use of RF sensors to provide…
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