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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
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High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

Mahindra Research Valley-Vinay Kumar
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Rahul Lalwani, Sudhir Sawant, Yogesh keskar, Nitin Pagar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2541
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving. Metallic mono-coat formulated using strong polyurethane resins & latest technology pre-coated aluminum pigment for achieving metallic effect in finish. With new resin technology further, reduction of baking temperature is possible & reduce further energy consumption. The proposed technology is fully validated on component and ready. Proposed…
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Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

Mahindra Research Valley-Shubham Kedia
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Divyanshu Joshi, Saravanan Muthiah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2397
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement. In the current work, a GUI based post-processing tool is developed for automated evaluation of ride, handling and steering performance. Methodology This work is about development of a centralized platform for quantification, visualization and comparison of ride, handling and steering performance metrics from testing and…
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Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

Mahindra Research Valley-Divya Pande, B Jayanthan, Vinay Kumar
Mahindra Engineering-Rahul Lalwani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2555
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating. This method can save huge time in predicting the weathering performance and decision making. RESULTS (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation degradation study was performed on…
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Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

Mahindra Research Valley-Shreekant Srivastava
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Gurpreet Singh, Prabhakaran Arumugam, Rakesh Sharma
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower. The present system is designed keeping condenser at the top of the roof where heavy particles won’t reach easily, So, condenser choking/clogging is observed every 2 hours, this makes the operator to perform repetitive cleaning operations with specific equipment and is a time-consuming process. The present system utilizes the condenser fan operating logic to eliminate this issue…
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Emission and Noise Optimization of CRDe Engine with Pilot Injection Strategies

Mahindra Research Valley-Pranav Kumar Sinha, Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norus. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise. Calibration was employed to meet the emission and noise targets of the points achieving effective noise - Soot trade off and HC- PM trade-off.
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Reduction of Emissions and Noise Variations by Adjustment of Fuel Injection Quantity

Mahindra Research Valley-Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Gurtej Bhachchu, Anbarasu Muthusamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Fuel injection system is a very sensitive structure deciding the optimum quantity of fuel to be injected for combustion process with acceptable accuracy. Learning of fuel quantity with respect to injection type, duration, number of injections requires proper correction values in order to reduce the variation which would result in dissimilar emissions and performance. Deviation of injection quantities are inevitable due to the variations in production tolerance of the injectors. This study focuses on the maximum reduction in fuel quantity which avoids deviation of soot emissions with three different sets of injectors statistically deviating from the ideal pilot fuel quantity. Three sets of injectors deviating from the mean value were chosen and named as Min sample, Mean sample and Max sample. Min sample was with lower injection quantity than the actual and max sample was with higher injection quantity than actual quantity. Engine was tested on dynamometer as per the standards with all the sets of injectors at part loads and the emission parameters were recorded at each load points. Heat release rate was observed…
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Effect of Injector Cone Angle and NTP on Performance and Emissions of BS6 Engine

Mahindra Research Valley-Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Pranav Kumar Sinha
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The combustion phenomenon of diesel engines has got a very major impact on the performance and exhaust emission levels. Several important factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, Exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. decide the quality of combustion. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum timing of injection. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which lead to the selection of perfect injector for a given engine. This paper focusses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP. The nozzle tip protrusion of the injectors were varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configurations, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at every level. Final confirmation of the configuration was selected based on…
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Parametric Calculation and Significance of Engine Dynamic Torque in Performance Benchmarking of a Vehicle

Mahindra Research Valley-Praveen Kumar Ramani, Bharathraj Jayaraman, Sangeetha Ramasamy Thiruppathi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industries around the world is undergoing massive transformation towards identifying technological capabilities to improve vehicle performance. In this regard, the engine dynamic torque plays a crucial role in defining the transient performance and drivability of a vehicle. Moreover, the dynamic torque is used as a visualization parameter in performance prediction of a vehicle to set the right engineering targets and to assess the engine potential. Hence, an accurate measurement and prediction of the engine dynamic torque is required. However, there are very few methodologies available to measure the engine dynamic torque with reasonable accuracy and minimum efforts. The measurement of engine brake torque using a torque transducer is one of the potential methods. However, it requires a lot of effort and time to instrument the vehicle. It is also possible to back-calculate the engine torque based on fuel injection quantity and other known engine parameters. Though this calculation method is relatively easy, it is not an accurate method. Moreover, it would not be possible to extract engine information of benchmark vehicles. Since every…
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Optimization of IP Duct Vane Articulation for Improved Cabin Airflow Directivity

Mahindra Research Valley-Subramaniyan Baskar, Nagarajan Gopinathan, Paradarami Udaya Kumar
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kumar Raju
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The air velocity achieved at driver and passenger aim point is one of the key parameters to evaluate the automotive air-conditioning system performance. The design of duct, vent and vanes has a major contribution in the cabin air flow directivity. However, visual appearance of vent and vane receives higher priority in design because of market demand than their performance. More iterations are carried out to finalize the HVAC duct assembly until the target velocity is achieved. The objective of this study is to develop an automated process for vane articulation study along with predicting the optimized velocity at driver and passengers. The automated simulation of vane articulation study is carried out using STAR-CCM+ and SHERPA optimization algorithm which is available in HEEDS tool. The minimum and maximum vane angle are defined as parameters and face level velocity is defined as response. Depending on the optimization technique and number of iterations defined in HEEDS, the vane angle will get updated and the design iterations proceeds automatically till the number of iterations are met. The obtained results…
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