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Practical Approaches for Detecting DoS Attacks on CAN Network

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Pallavi Kalyanasundaram, Venkatesh Kareti, Meghana Sambranikar, Narendra Kumar SS, Priti Ranadive
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Some of the recent studies reveal that it is possible to access the in-vehicle networks and inject malicious messages to alter the behavior of the vehicle. Researchers have shown that, it is possible to hack a car’s communication network and remotely take control of brake, steering, power window systems, etc. Hence, it becomes inevitable to implement schemes that detect anomalies and prevent attacks on Controller Area Network (CAN). Our work explores the complete anomaly detection process for CAN. We cover the techniques followed, available tools and challenges at every stage. Beginning with what makes CAN protocol vulnerable, we discuss case studies about attacks on CAN with major focus on Denial of Service (DoS) attack. We analyze the pattern of normal CAN messages obtained from real vehicle, along with patterns of simulated attack data using different methods/tools. The work in this paper presents a statistical data analysis based machine learning algorithm with two approaches “time-based” and “message-based” to detect DoS attack on CAN bus. Comparative analysis of observations and accuracy results are highlighted. The average accuracy…
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Actuator Domain Architecture: Strategy for Optimizing Weight Reduction and CO2 Emission

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Ravi Ranjan, Jainendra Mishra, Shanmugasundram Govindasamy
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A typical mid-range vehicle can house hundreds of electromechanical actuators. These actuators perform functionalities ranging from radiator fan, seat actuation motors, power glass to windscreen wipers. The weight and power consumption of these actuators contribute adversely towards the efficiency of the vehicle. The last decade has observed a growing trend of design modularity and normalization of actuators for inventory management. This strategy has resulted in an ill-engineered addition of actuators. This paper presents a subjective analysis of these factors resulting cause of actuator redundancy and need for optimization. Also, it investigates the functional distribution and characterization of these actuators in the vehicle. The study reveals that many of these actuators are in proximity and thus ideally suited to achieve an actuator domain architecture. Paper proposes a novel actuator domain architecture that clusters a group of identified actuators. Furthermore method of replacing the cluster of actuators with a single domain actuator has been discussed. In the domain actuator, each functionality is achieved by a passive or active interface to control the motion/actuation. The system configuration of…
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Suspension Health Monitoring and Failure Prognosis Through Onboard SoC and Cloud Based Reporting

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Naveen Manuel, Jainendra Mishra
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Failures of automotive mechanical systems such as suspension systems, or “springs” while a vehicle is in operation is most often serious, and can sometimes incur financial loses or even fatal consequences. Spring failures result from either chronic overloading, poor driver behavior, severe duty cycle, or a combination of the aforementioned conditions. These conditions result in extraordinary fatigue, ultimately reducing the spring’s overall expected useful life. There has been a significant reduction in the cost of onboard computing making it economically viable to measure, record, and store various parameters that affect the spring life. An economical measurement system was designed that could plot the Load vs. Displacement graph (L/D) by simply measuring the spring’s displacement from its nominal (static) position. Previous methodologies have used expensive load cells; in our demonstration we prove that measurements can be taken much more economically using an array of Hall Effect type sensors. The L/D plots are stored and compared and a performance deterioration curve is plotted and an acute failure timeline is predicted, information of which is constantly relayed to…
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Multiple Target Track Management Algorithm Using 2D LIDAR Sensing

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Soumyo Das, Prashantkumar B. Vora
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The tracking of objects for an autonomous vehicle requires sufficiently reliable data processing and association. In this paper, the signal data processing of sensed LIDAR and the multiple target track management algorithm of a maneuvering vehicle are presented. The algorithm is employed for 2D LIDAR sensor mounted in a moving vehicle and navigating in a high-way. The adaptive segmentation, feature creation from point cloud, data association and prediction modelling are the key features of track management. Initialization of the track has been developed based on constant velocity model hypothesis in order to facilitate target management in a high-way crowded environment. The multiple target tracking are associated with feature identification of the targets and also prediction modelling of moving occluded object. The prediction model of moving vehicles and pedestrians are the focus area of this research. The non-parametric probabilistic data association approach has been introduced in the paper for modelling of track management and update of state covariance for moving targets with different characterized features and velocities. The probabilistic data association is applied on the classified…
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Comparative Analysis of Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Conventional Control in Supervisory Controller of a Retrofit HEV

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Aditya Chandrasekar, Somnath Sengupta, Sushant Hingane, Chethan Gururaja, Sachin Pandit
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The constant pressure on reducing fuel consumption and emissions in cost sensitive automotive markets has brought focus on retrofit HEV solutions. Through retrofit mechanism, existing conventional (solely engine powered) vehicles can be quickly converted into HEVs. However, the retrofit HEV, although cost effective, poses challenges in developing strategies to control the motor for a given fuel economy, emissions, drivability, battery life requirements and driver inputs. These challenges are primarily due to non-availability of calibration data from the OEMs. This paper focuses on the benefits and challenges with design, tuning and performance of MPC based supervisory controller against a conventional one for a retrofit HEV, using practical data in simulation environment. The inherent characteristics of MPC will lead to the choice of best possible inputs, while respecting the constraints. Hence, MPC is used to control the motor torque in such a manner so as to achieve maximum possible utilization of motor (reducing engine usage) while respecting the safety critical constraints of battery viz., SOC, current, voltage, etc. This is realized by framing the dynamical structure of…
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Intelligent Braking and Maneuvering System for an Automobile Application

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-P. Ramani Ranjan Senapati, Soumyo Das, Prashantkumar B. Vora
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The development of intelligent driver assistance mechanism ensures safety and comfort of passengers, the intelligent braking and maneuvering mechanism is proposed by transforming the anti-lock braking technology for a four wheeled vehicle. This paper presents an active safety mechanism which incorporates both steering and braking assistance system in a maneuvering vehicle. The algorithm of collision avoidance mechanism is featured and interfaced in an intelligent vehicle with short range radar to assist driving system of host vehicle based on predicted motion of sensed obstacles. The developed system will be activated for obstacles in front of the host vehicle within critical risk level. The intelligent braking mechanism plays a pivotal role at the time of emergency situation depending on the predicted collision time and relative velocity between host and target, it also provides assistance to avoid panic situation for driver. In order to facilitate the accident avoidance safety feature in vehicle, the driver assistance system facilitates steering mechanism along with emergency braking and speed control to avoid collision with multiple moving obstacles based on situation assessment. The…
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Automatic C to Simulink Model Converter (C2M) Tool

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Rakesh Rao
CREST, KPIT Technologies, Ltd.-Smitha Kizhakkae Palakkal, Priti Ranadive, Naveen Boggarapu
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0164
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry today follows Model Based Development (MBD) for developing modern automotive applications. This method involves creating models for a system under design and then using tools like MATLAB/Simulink to auto-generate code for target platforms. This method is popular since maintenance of MBD based applications is simple and less time consuming as compared to maintaining hand-written application code. Thus, MBD facilitates correct designs and easy maintenance of automotive applications. However, there are legacy automotive applications that are not developed using models. It is difficult to accommodate and test any changes in such application codes since it requires extensive testing. Additionally, for application code generated from models, many a times, code is changed during testing and these changes are not reflected in the model. Hence, there is a need to convert legacy automotive application codes to models. A novel Code to Model (C2M) tool is described in the paper that can automatically convert a given code to Simulink model. We also discuss the design and few implementation challenges of this tool. The C2M tool has…
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