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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corp Ltd-Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset. Existing CNG genset has been converted into hydrogen genset with modification in intake manifold assembly, engine hardware system, ECU modification with adequate modification in exhaust system. State of…
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Influence of Turbulence and Thermophysical Fluid Properties on Cavitation Erosion Predictions in Channel Flow Geometries

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Kaushik Saha
Argonne National Laboratory-Gina M. Magnotti, Sibendu Som
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0290
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Cavitation and cavitation-induced erosion have been observed in fuel injectors in regions of high acceleration and low pressure. Although these phenomena can have a large influence on the performance and lifetime of injector hardware, questions still remain on how these physics should be accurately and efficiently represented within a computational fluid dynamics model. While several studies have focused on the validation of cavitation predictions within canonical and realistic injector geometries, it is not well documented what influence the numerical and physical parameters selected to represent turbulence and phase change will have on the predictions for cavitation erosion propensity and severity.In this work, a range of numerical and physical parameters are evaluated within the mixture modeling approach in CONVERGE to understand their influence on predictions of cavitation, condensation and erosion. Particular attention is paid to grid resolution, turbulence model and near-wall treatment, fuel surrogate properties, and non-condensable gas content. Assessment of cavitation predictions are conducted through comparison of measured and predicted mass flow rates and cavitation probability distributions for flow through a channel with a sharp…
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Evaluation of Off-Tracking of Steerable Axle Semi-Trailer Combinations

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-S P Singh
VRDE Ahmednagar-Vikram Saini, Sanjay Chaudhuri
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Steerable multi axle trailers are deployed for transportation due to their cost effectiveness and improved manoeuvrability then non-steered trailers. High speed manoeuvres of steerable axle trailer are considered dangerous for stability due to complex dynamic behaviour and researched for decades. Off-Tracking is an important parameter which influences the dynamic behaviour of steerable axle trailer at both low and high speed. Off-tracking is defined as maximum radial offset between path of the tractor’s front axle centre and trailer’s rearmost axle centre during a specific manoeuvre. Off-tracking, being a slow speed phenomenon becomes major concern for safe and accident free movement even at slow speeds.A linear 3-DOF yaw plane model of steerable axle tractor trailer combination is developed using Lagrangian approach, which requires steering angles of truck’s front axle and all trailer axles to simulate the system. Trailer steering follows Command steering law hence, mathematical equations based on analytical Ackerman’s theory developed to evaluate ideal trailer steering angles. Further, actual steering angles by physical trailer steering mechanism are evaluated and optimised by MBD model prepared in ADAMS…
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Contour Based Repositioning of Specific Joints of the GHBMC Human Body FE Model

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Anoop Chawla, Sukhraj Singh, Sachiv Paruchuri, Aditya Chhabra
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The generation of anatomically correct postures of finite element based Human Body Models (HBM) is indispensable for injury prediction in passive safety analysis. HBMs are often underutilized in industrial R&D since these are typically available only in one posture and do not represent the variability in the human postures in an actual vehicle environment. The work presented in the paper is part of a number of tools being developed for this purpose under a European Union project - Piper. It uses a computer graphic based method for positioning an HBM in the desired posture. In the past the technique has been used for repositioning the knee and pelvic joints of the HBM. The technique has been extended to other joints of the HBM. It ensures that the result is anatomically correct while maintaining its mesh quality. Further, the method needs minimal subjective intervention. In the method, a set of contours are first defined on the given model surface. The space between the contours and outer surface of the bones is discretized into tetrahedrons using the…
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Development of Hydrogen Fuelled Low NOx Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Exhaust after Treatment

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Divesh Bhatia, Viresh Dutta, Lalit Mohan Das
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Srinivas Jilakara, GP Subash
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-26-0074
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
Air pollution caused by vehicular tail pipe emissions has become a matter of grave concern in major cities of the world. Hydrogen, a carbon free fuel is a clean burning fuel with only concern being oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed. The present study focuses on the development of a hydrogen powered multi-cylinder engine with low NOx emissions. The NOx emissions were reduced using a combination of an in-cylinder control strategy viz. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and an after treatment method using hydrogen as a NOx reductant. In the present study, the low speed torque of the hydrogen engine was improved by 38.46% from 65 Nm to 90 Nm @ 1200 rpm by operating at an equivalence of 0.64. The higher equivalence ratio operation compared to the conventional low equivalence ratio operation lead to an increase in the torque generated but increased NOx as well. The back fire at higher equivalence ratios was prevented by cold EGR operation while maintaining conditions to prevent water condensation. The spark timing was varied between 2°-15° BTDC and the variation…
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A Pilot Study at National Highway-8 for On-Site Crash Data Collection and In-Depth Investigation in India

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Kuldeep Singh, Anoop Chawla, Sudipto Mukherjee
Ministry of Heavy Industries & PE-Pradeep Agrawal
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The importance of on-site, in-depth accident research studies has been recognized internationally especially in developed countries. In order to address problems related to road safety, it is important to understand the epidemiology and causation of crashes. For this an in-depth investigation of the crash site, vehicles involved and injury details is required. Detailed crash information helps in analysing the events leading to crash and developing safety measures and/or intervention to reduce crashes. In order to pilot such an activity in India, an in-depth accident data collection activity had been carried out on national highway connecting Delhi to Jaipur (NH-8) for a duration of over a year by a joint team of IIT-Delhi and NATRiP.A total of 1220 road traffic accidents (RTA) notifications were received by the team, of which 186 cases were attended and detailed data was collected in a pre-decided format. The crash data has been statistically analysed to determine the type of vehicles involved, contributory factors, collision type, type and level of injuries (injury categorized on the basis of severity).Statistical analysis shows that…
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Indian Experience of Soot Loading on Diesel Engine Oil’s Performance - Friction, Wear and Fuel Economy

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K.A. Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd..-Gopalakrishna Acharya
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. Buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean.To study the impact of soot on diesel engine oil performance tests were conducted on a turbo charged diesel engine conforming to BSIII for 150 / 250 hours using commercial grade oils with increased test severity by changing the engine design parameters such as injection timing & injection pressure, intake air throttling and also operating conditions such as speed, torque, coolant and oil temperatures in order to generate 6% of soot level at the end of 250 hrs for simulating the field conditions…
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An Experimental Study of Turbocharged Hydrogen Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Lalit Mohan Das
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Srinivas Jilakara, Jaikumar V Vaithianathan, Saravanan Natarajan, Venkateswara R Ramakrishnan, GP Subash, Mathew Abraham
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-26-0051
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen is considered as one of the potential alternate fuel and when compared to other alternate fuels like CNG, LPG, Ethanol etc., it has unique properties due to absence of carbon. In the current work, Hydrogen engine of 2.5 L, four cylinder, spark ignited Turbocharged-Intercooled engine is developed for Mini Bus application. Multi-point fuel injection system is used for injecting the hydrogen in the intake manifold. Initially, boost simulation is performed to select the optimum compression ratio and turbocharger. The literature review has shown that in-order to get the minimum NOx emissions Hydrogen engines must be operated between equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. In the present study, full throttle performance is conducted mainly with the above equivalence ratio range with minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) ignition timing. At each operating point, the performance, emissions and combustion parameters are recorded and analyzed in detail. It has been observed that a power of 66.7 kW @3200 rpm and a torque of 180 Nm @2000 rpm are achieved by using neat Hydrogen on Turbo…
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Effects of Governing Parameters on the Performance and Emissions of Hydrogen Engine for Automotive Application

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Lalit Mohan Das
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Rana kunal, Mathew Abraham, GP Subash, M Rajesh, Jilakara srinivas
Published 2013-11-27 by SAE International in United States
This report describes work performed jointly by Mahindra & Mahindra and IIT Delhi, including both simulations and single-cylinder engine development for three wheeler application, to quantify the effects of various parameters on the performance and NOx emission of an internal combustion engine fuelled by hydrogen. AVL Boost software was used to simulate the experimental conditions, by using Vibe 2-Zone combustion and Woschni heat models, together with kinetic equations for emission calculations. Developed AVL Boost Model was validated against the test result from a modified single cylinder CNG engine for three wheeler application fuelled with Hydrogen by comparing the performance and NOx emission at the same operating conditions. A good agreement was obtained between the results of the Boost Model and Experimental results.With Validated Model, a detailed parametric study was done by simulating full throttle and part throttle engine performance to calculate power, BMEP, BSFC, exhaust temperature and NOx emission to understand the effect of compression ratio, A/F ratio, and ignition timings on same. Consequently with this data, Design of experiment (DOE) technique was used to…
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A Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine using Biodiesel Derived from Non-Edible Feedstocks

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Pradip Lingfa, Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Satya Narayan Naik, Lalit Mohan Das
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demands of energy in various sectors and environmental concerns have stimulated the scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. In the present study, non-edible vegetable oils such as Tung (Aleurites fordii), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) methyl esters were produced and blended with diesel fuel in different proportions. An experimental investigation was carried out to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel. Engine performance and emission analysis were performed using biodiesel blends (10%,15%,20% and 50% of Tung, Jatropha and Karanja) in 4.4 kW single cylinder air cooled four stroke compression ignition engine at different loads. It was observed that performance characteristics like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) with 15% Tung methyl ester and 20% Karanja methyl ester and 20% Jatropha methyl ester were comparable to diesel fuel. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and…
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