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Increasing Development Assurance for System and Software Development with Validation and Verification Using ASSERT™

GE Global Research Center-Andy Crapo, Michael Durling, Meng Li, Abha Moitra
GE Aviation Systems LLC-Craig McMillan, Mark Stephens, Daniel Russell
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
System design continues to trend toward increasing complexity as more functionality is added to aviation systems and the level of automation is increased. Since exhaustive validation and verification of this functionality becomes increasingly difficult, reliance on development assurance is needed to provide confidence that errors in requirements, design and implementation have been identified and corrected. To address this need for increased development assurance, GE is introducing a tool called ASSERT™ (Analysis of Semantic Specifications and Efficient generation of Requirements-based Tests). The system developer uses this tool to capture requirements in an unambiguous way with built-in semantic error checking. The requirements analysis engine is then used to assist in requirements validation to identify common problems which may include requirements that conflict with one another, requirements that do not fully specify the behavior of a function, requirements that are not independent of one another, and requirements that are either always true or false. Having unambiguous and complete requirements also enables the tool to consistently generate a complete set of requirements-based test cases and procedures to ensure the…
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Application of High Performance Computing for Simulating Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Combustion Engines

GE Global Research Center-Ravichandra S. Jupudi, Roy Primus, Adam E. Klingbeil, Bhaskar Tamma
Convergent Science Inc.-Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Interest in operational cost reduction is driving engine manufacturers to consider low-cost fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel engines. These dual-fuel (DF) engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. Under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can result in increased cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) during combustion. CFD can greatly help in understanding and identifying critical parameters influencing CCV. Innovative modelling techniques and large computing resources are needed to investigate the factors affecting CCV in dual-fuel engines. This paper discusses the use of the High Performance Computing resource Titan, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to investigate CCV of a dual-fuel engine. The CONVERGE CFD software was used to simulate multiple, parallel single cycles of dual-fuel combustion with perturbed operating parameters and boundary conditions. Perturbations associated with a single parameter can be studied using samples distributed according to a one dimensional interpolation rule. However, extending such techniques to a multidimensional context is a challenge since the straight forward tensorization leads to an exponential…
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Plastics Application Technology for Lightweight Automobiles

GE Global Research Center-Sudhakar Marur
  • Book
  • R-415
Published 2013-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This book is focused on the use of plastics in automobiles for traditional applications, as well as for more advanced uses such as under-the-hood components. Engineering thermoplastics offer the ability to tailor-make components from polymers, and to design parts for enhanced performance, new functionality, part integration, and elimination of secondary operations. Parts made from engineering thermoplastics can be manufactured within specified cost constraints, and using manufacturing methods that offer a wide range of production flexibility. A decade of research and real-world applications is presented by the authors on application technology development for various aspects of automotive design – concept design, CAD modeling, predictive engineering methods through CAE, manufacturing method simulation, and prototype and tool making. Additional advantages of plastics are covered and include greater styling, improved energy absorption, and enhanced performance over traditional materials, all while fostering environmental sustainability and reducing overall vehicle weight for next generation automobiles.
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A Methodology to Quantify Surface Mar

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

GE Global Research Center-Vicki Watkins
GE Corporate-Moitreyee Sinha
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0542
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Understanding scratch and mar damage performance of materials is important in the automotive industry. Hence there is need to develop a suitable method to quantify them and relate back to product performance. This paper elucidates a method to quantitatively evaluate mar defects. The method involves marring the surface of a sample with a crockmeter and the damaged surface characterized using a two-camera optical imaging system. These results were then correlated with visual survey results and a transfer function was generated using Design expert DX6net. In the validation stage, a set of newly marred samples were investigated to generate both visual rank and mar index using the transfer functions. Excellent agreement between mar index and visual survey rank reconfirmed the method's effectiveness. Mar performance of different materials (black and high gloss) can be compared using this technique on a 0-100 scale. This method can also be used to characterize polycarbonate glazing surfaces. Mar quantification tool is robust, quantitative, measures visual perception and free from human bias.
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A Low-Cost, Scalable, Real-Time Scheduling Method for Charging Plug-in Electric Vehicles

GE Global Research Center-Zhenhua Jiang, Matthew Nielsen
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a low-cost, scalable method that can schedule in real time the charging process of a large set of controllable plug-in electric vehicles within a finite spatial area such as a parking garage or residential neighborhood. This method allows the charging system to abide by the constraints on total power consumption, which can be either sent down from the upper-level utility operator or generated locally in response to electricity price variations and local measurements, while satisfying all the charging requirements from the customers. The charging system can collect information about the grid-connected vehicles and send charging commands (including on/off signals and charging rates) to individual chargers through an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) or a local SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The system can generate charging commands in such a way that the total power consumption by the collection of vehicles does not exceed the specified limitation and that the charging deadlines of all vehicles are met as well. The charging sequence is generated using a prioritization scheme based on several factors…
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CFD Analysis of Supercooled Large Droplets in Turbofan Engines

GE Global Research Center-Chiong Tan
GE Aviation-Chuck Califf, Anabel Rodriguez, Eduardo Lemini
Published 2011-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The study of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) has received greater attention in the Aviation industry since the ATR-72 accident in 1994, which was attributed to SLD. This type of icing cloud usually consists of droplets of up to a millimeter in diameter and mean volumetric diameter (MVD) greater than 40 microns1. The analyses of the ice accretion process with SLD have focused mainly on the wing and stabilizers, particularly on the leading edges where accretion can occur beyond the ice protected areas. There are several numerical and empirical models to predict the mass and shapes of ice accreted from SLD, but there are few published papers that focus on SLD accretion within aircraft turbofan engines2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.SLD droplets have higher inertia than conventional icing droplets, which leads to their trajectories being less influenced by the aerodynamic forces. However, large droplets are more likely to breakup than smaller droplets when subjected to highly shear flows. In addition, SLD tends to splash on impact resulting in smaller droplets in the process.CFD tools…
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Development of An Icing Tool For Aircraft Engines

GE Global Research Center-Chiong S. Tan
General Electric Co-Byron Pritchard, Ron Plybon, Chuck Califf, Ray Holm, Sasikumar Muthusamy, Viilas Bokade, TS Niranjan, Balasubramaniam Mahadevan
Published 2011-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a physics-based icing tool for aircraft engines, which have small components compared to the wing geometry of an aircraft. The tool consists of an icing code, viscous CFD software and mesh generator to build ice shapes incrementally to form the final shape. This multi-layered process was developed to predict ice shapes in components with high-pressure gradient flows as found inside engine flow passages. Good agreement was found between experimental and predicted ice shapes for engine inlet guide vanes and different wing geometries.
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Polyimide Flex Circuitry for >200C

GE Global Research Center-David M. Shaddock, Aaron J. Knobloch, Shubhra Bansal, Chris Kapusta
SUNY-Binghamton-Junghyun Cho, Harry Schoeller
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
This Department of Energy funded study represents the first significant investigation of polyimide flex as a substrate material for high temperature (>200°C) electronics packaging for downhole oil and gas exploration. This program examined at three key areas of package development: conductor adhesion to flex, through hole via reliability in flex, and high temperature interconnect methods for passive devices on flex. High temperature storage testing of different adhesion layers to flex was performed at 200 and 250°C in air and nitrogen for as long as 1000 hrs. Multiple adhesion materials and thicknesses were evaluated by measuring the peel strength of copper traces to polyimide. A Cr adhesion layer was selected due to its ability to maintain high peel strength during the high temperature storage testing. Thermal cycling of through hole vias between room temperature and 250°C for greater than 1200 cycles showed little degradation. Thermal cycling was also performed on passive components attached to flex using four high temperature solders. Results up to 277 cycles is reported.
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Development of High Temperature Capacitors for High Density, High Temperature Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

GE Global Research Center-Patricia C. Irwin, Daniel Qi Tan, Yang Cao, Norberto Silvi
Bollore, Inc.-Christophe Garet
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2851
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
A number of alternative capacitor technologies have been studied and high-temperature extruded polymer film capacitors hold the promise to meet the critical needs for temperature, energy density, reliability, cost and availability. Polymer resins capable of continuous use up to 200°C can be extruded into very thin films thereby permitting higher capacitor operating temperatures, higher energy density and improved cost structure compared to films manufactured by solvent casting processes. Studies of polymeric resins have shown that high-engineered polyetherimides show great promise for use as dielectric capacitor films. Polyetherimides can be melt extruded into thin films providing a low cost, environmentally friendly dielectric material. Discussions of the results of melt extrusion, metallization, and winding into electrostatic polyetherimide film capacitors will be given comparing and contrasting the results to other electrostatic film capacitor designs.
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High Density, High Performance Modular DC-DC Power Converter

GE Global Research Center-C. Korman, M. Schutten, E. Delgado, P. McConnelee, R. Beaupre, W. Earls
Lockheed-Martin-Greg Garcia, Phil Kane, Frank McGraw
Published 2002-10-29 by SAE International in United States
A prototype 270 Vdc to 36 Vdc, 6 kW power converter with a power density of 120 W/in3 and excellent pulsed load characteristics is particularly suitable for electronic warfare (EW) loads. This converter was developed and built under a Navy Dual Use and Science Technology (DUST) program. As a building block for distributed power, the core power technology exceeds the DoD's Level II requirements for size and weight. This can significantly reduce weight and volume for current and future more electric aircraft (MEA) platforms.
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