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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector End of Injection Spray Characteristics

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2600
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…
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Automotive Applications of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Adit Joshi
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-209
Published 2019-08-13 by SAE International in United States
Automotive Applications of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation shines a light on HIL simulation testing methodology commonly used in the automotive industry for conventional, electrification and autonomy applications and can serve as an introductory resource for college students looking to join the automotive industry or experienced technical professionals who need a deeper understanding on what is HIL simulation, what are its benefits and how can it be used in their respective organizations.
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Machine Learning with Decision Trees and Multi-Armed Bandits: An Interactive Vehicle Recommender System

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Dominique Meroux, Zhen Jiang
Carnegie Mellon University-Tong Yu, Ole Mengshoel
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recommender systems guide a user to useful objects in a large space of possible options in a personalized way. In this paper, we study recommender systems for vehicles. Compared to previous research on recommender systems in other domains (e.g., movies or music), there are two major challenges associated with recommending vehicles. First, typical customers purchase fewer cars than movies or pieces of music. Thus, it is difficult to obtain rich information about a customer’s vehicle purchase history. Second, content information obtained about a customer (e.g., demographics, vehicle preferences, etc.) is also difficult to acquire during a relatively short stay in a dealership. To address these two challenges, we propose an interactive vehicle recommender system based a novel machine learning method that integrates decision trees and multi-armed bandits. Decision tree learning effectively selects important questions to ask the customer and encodes the customer's key preferences. With these preferences as prior information, the multi-armed bandit algorithm, using Thompson sampling, efficiently leverages the user’s feedback to improve the recommendations in an online fashion. The empirical results show that…
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Innovative Knee Airbag (KAB) Concept for Small Overlap and Oblique Frontal Impacts

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Pardeep Jindal
Detroit Engineered Products (DEP) Inc.-Rahul Makwana
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Considerable research has been conducted in terms of attempting to reduce lower leg injury risk in full frontal impacts, in some cases by the use of a knee airbag (KAB). However, there has been limited research into the performance of KAB systems during a crash test with increased oblique loading, such as the IIHS small overlap frontal test, an oblique moving deformable barrier test (OI) being researched by NHTSA, and a mobile progressive deformable barrier test (MPDB) that is expected to be implemented by Euro NCAP in the next few years. The objective of the current numerical study was concentrated on the evaluation of an innovative KAB concept design intended to reduce ATD right inboard lower leg/foot responses under small overlap and oblique loading conditions. A novel appendage KAB concept design was developed with the help of morphing and computational studies which were performed with different ATD sizes. In the study, one of the lower leg/foot responses was monitored and compared over a conventional KAB design. Cases investigated in the study showed that the novel…
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Security in Wireless Powertrain Networking through Machine Learning Localization

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Ben Tabatowski-Bush
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper demonstrates a solution to the security problem for automotive wireless powertrain networking. That is, the security for wireless automotive networking requires a localization function before we allow a node to join the network. We explain why for powertrain wireless networking, this ability of identifying the precise location of a communicating wireless node is critical. In this paper, we explore existing methods that others have used to implement localization for wireless networking. Then, we apply machine-learning techniques to a dataset that has localization information associated with received signal strength indication. We reveal insights provided by our dataset though an exploration with statistics and visualization. We then present our problem in terms of pattern recognition via multiple techniques, including Naïve Bayes Classifier and Artificial Neural Networks. Through these techniques, we use our exemplary vehicle network and dataset to demonstrate a simple solution that has excellent performance in determining localization. This is an elegant solution to the security problem for wireless automotive networking.
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Integrating SOTIF and Agile Systems Engineering

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Kyle Post, Christopher K. Davey
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles and advanced driver assistance systems have functionality realized across numerous distributed systems that interact with a dynamic cyber-physical environment. This complexity raises the potential for emergent behaviours which are not intended for the system’s operational use. The need to analyze the intended functionality of these emergent behaviours for potential hazards, which may occur in absence of faults, are aspects of the ISO PAS 21448, Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) [1]. The Safety of the Intended Functionality or SOTIF is a framework for developing systems which are free from unreasonable risk due to the intended functionality or performance limitations of a system which is free from faults. This is meant to complement Functional Safety which is covered in ISO 26262 [2]. The major focus of SOTIF is to aid in the functional development of a system. The major areas are focused on analyzing the system as specified, verify that any known hazardous scenarios meet the expected behaviour, identify any hazardous scenarios which were previously not known, and iterate the functional design accordingly.This paper…
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Extended Kalman Filter Based Road Friction Coefficient Estimation and Experimental Verification

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Arlene Fang
APTIV PLC-Bin Li, Guobiao Song
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Accurate road friction coefficient is crucial for the proper functioning of active chassis control systems. However, road friction coefficient is difficult to be measured directly. Using the available onboard sensors, a model-based Extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate road friction coefficient. In the development of estimation algorithm, vehicle motion states such as sideslip angle, yaw rate and vehicle speed are first estimated. Then, road friction coefficient estimator is designed using nonlinear vehicle model together with the pre-estimated vehicle motion states. The proposed estimation algorithm is validated by both simulations and tests on a scaled model vehicle.
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Analyzing and Preventing Data Privacy Leakage in Connected Vehicle Services

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Yu Seung Kim, Pramita Mitra
University of Michigan-Huaxin Li, Di Ma, Brahim Medjahed
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services are revolutionizing the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of data are being generated, collected, and utilized, hence providing tremendous business opportunities. However, this big data poses serious challenges mainly in terms of data privacy. The risks of privacy leakage are amplified by the information sharing nature of emerging mobility services and the recent advances in data analytics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the connected vehicle landscape and point out potential privacy threats. We demonstrate two of the risks, namely additional individual information inference and user de-anonymization, through concrete attack designs. We also propose corresponding countermeasures to defend against such privacy attacks. We evaluate the feasibility of such attacks and our defense strategies using real world vehicular data.
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Filter Element Robustness Strategy for Mud Ingestion

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-John L. Emley, Venkatesan Shrevatsan
Mann + Hummel USA Inc.-Jon Nichols
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Air filter elements have been around since the dawn of automotive development. The function of an air induction system and the filter element in particular is to remove particulates such as dust, soot, and relatively minor contaminants from the air flow. This protects the engine, turbocharger, and other components from wear. However, sometimes severe duty cycles may cause large amounts of dust, mud, and water to enter the air induction system (AIS). This can cause filter degradation and even rupture or deformation, leading to highly increased engine and turbocharger wear. One example of this extreme loading is the tar sands region of Alberta, Canada, where trucks can accumulate over 1000 pounds of mud on a vehicle during normal usage over a few weeks’ time. Significant amounts of this mud also get ingested into the AIS.This study attempts to analyze different aspects of filter design to increase robustness to severe usage, particularly mud. Different aspects studied are filter element structure, filter element media, inlet location, and inlet blocking. Traditional ISO 5011 tests would not replicate the…
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Sensor Selection for Selective Clutch Fault Isolation in Automatic Transmissions Based on Degree of Fault Tolerance

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Majed Mohammed, Richard Hathaway, Abigail A. Henning
Ohio State University-Eeshan Vijay Deosthale, Qadeer Ahmed, Giorgio Rizzoni
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Multiple clutches are engaged to achieve a specific gear ratio in an automatic transmission (AT). When an engaged clutch loses pressure during the AT operation, it is classified as a clutch stuck off fault. Automatic transmissions can enter in neutral states because of these faults and the vehicle can lose power at the wheels. Our previous work describes a systematic way of performing sensor placement analysis for diagnosis of clutch faults in automatic transmissions. In this paper, we approach the issue from the point of view similar to that of functional safety according to the ISO 26262 standard; where a transmission functional safety concept should address transitioning to a safe state in case of hazards associated with stuck off clutches. We try to address the questions whether all the faults really need to be isolated from each other and whether it is possible to isolate only a subset of faults to reduce the number of required sensors and still maintain a reasonable performance/safety. A way to classify clutch faults based on fault tolerant actions and…
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