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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

ENI Spa-Leonardo Pellegrini
Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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A Mathematical Model for the Vapour Composition and Flammability of Gasoline - Diesel Mixtures in a Fuel Tank

ENI Spa-Leonardo Pellegrini
Concawe-Heather Hamje, David Rickeard
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this, but a practical concern is the flammability of the headspace vapours in the vehicle fuel tank. Gasoline is much more volatile than diesel so, at most ambient temperatures, the headspace vapours in the tank are too rich to burn. A gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank therefore can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model is presented that predicts the flammability of the headspace vapours in a tank containing mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel. Fourteen hydrocarbons and ethanol represent the volatile components. Heavier components are treated as non-volatile diluents in the liquid phase. The non-ideality of the blends of hydrocarbons and ethanol is accounted for using activity coefficients. Predictions for dry vapour pressure equivalent (DVPE), vapour phase composition and flammability are…
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Vapour Space Flammability Considerations for Gasoline Compression Ignition Vehicles Operating on “Dieseline” Blends.

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

ENI Spa-Leonardo Pellegrini
Concawe-Heather Hamje, David Rickeard
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2266
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been identified as a technology which could give both high efficiency and relatively low engine-out emissions. The introduction of any new vehicle technology requires widespread availability of appropriate fuels. It would be ideal therefore if GCI vehicles were able to operate using the standard grade of gasoline that is available at the pump. However, in spite of recent progress, operation at idle and low loads still remains a formidable challenge, given the relatively low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. One conceivable solution would be to use both diesel and gasoline, either in separate tanks or blended as a single fuel (“dieseline”). However, with this latter option, a major concern for dieseline would be whether a flammable mixture could exist in the vapour space in the fuel tank. It is expected that in a practical scenario, the ambient temperature would generally exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) temperature of diesel/gasoline blends. A non-flammable vapour could still be assured, however, if the temperature in the fuel tank were above…
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An Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Ultra Low Viscosity Engine Oils on Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions

ENI Spa-Massimo Manni, Salvatore Florio
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Low and ultra low viscosity oils are one of the main solutions considered in view of the improvement of energy efficiency for better fuel economy.The recent modification of SAE J300 engine oil viscosity classification, to include engine oils with high temperature & high shear rate (HTHS) viscosity of 2.3 mPa·s for the SAE 16 grade, has opened debate on the possible real benefits that could derive, in terms of fuel economy and CO2 emission reduction, from the use of ultra low viscosity oils on engines of current technology.Two European compact cars (C-segment) of recent technology and similar characteristics were employed in our laboratories, on chassis-dyno test bed, to evaluate fuel economy with the use of oils having an HTHS viscosity decreasing from 2.9 to 2.0 mPa·s, with a −0.3 mPa·s step.Different test cycles were selected for this purpose: the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), applied in laboratory test approvals within EU, that is composed of a urban driving and a high speed driving cycle, and the Urban Driving Cycle developed within the European ARTEMIS project…
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