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Investigation on Safety Improvements by Lighting for Pedestrians and Cyclists

Audi AG-Michael Hamm, Christian Hinterwaelder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0633
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper will describe actual investigations on safety improvements by new lighting functions. Especially the new chance of projections on the road surface either by simple reflector technology or by modern signature and pattern projection will be investigated. Several different prototype technology will be checked by a set of new parameters, e.g. reaction time to signals, clear understanding, minimum and optimum visual contrasts etc.
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Investigations on Headlamp and Car Body Tolerances in Real Life

Audi AG-Michael Hamm, Christian Hinterwalder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0635
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Good Lighting is cruicial for safe driving at night. Unfortunately many parameters are contributing to the final result of the individual tolerances of car body, dynamics and headlamp: The resulting aim. The paper will collect and analyse tolerance contributors from body parameters like load, tire pressure, suspension as well as aging parameters of chassis and plastic parts.
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Wake study on isolated, detailed and rotating car wheels

Audi AG-Lukas Haag, Vincent Zander
Technische Universitat Munchen-Jan Reiß, Jonas Sebald, Thomas Indinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0686
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wheels on passenger vehicles cause about 25% of the aerodynamic drag. The interference of rims and tires in combination with the rotation result in strongly turbulent wake regions with complex flow phenomena. This wake structures interact with the flow around the vehicle. To understand the wake structures of wheels and their aerodynamic impact on the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle, the complexity was reduced by investigating a standalone tire in the windtunnel. Besides the influence of geometry changes on the acting forces, the wake region behind the wheel is investigated via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The average flow field behind the investigated wheels is captured with this method and offers insight into the flow field. The investigation of the wake region allows to attribute changes in the flow field to the change of tires and rims. Due to increased calculation performance sophisticated CFD simulations can capture detailed geometries like the tire tread and the movement of the rim. Therefore, the wake investigation via PIV is a usable basis to compare it to results of such…
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Glare Investigations and Safety Research on Digital Light Technologies

Audi AG-Michael Hamm, Wolfgang Huhn
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
New human-machine interfaces are the direct result of digitalization. So also in lighting, new constellations have to be taken into account when looking to the possibilities of giving additional informations to the driver. Lighting and furthermore information given by light is a clear preference during nighttime driving. The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs in order to prepare full view on such new human-machine interface. In Europe, GTB (Group de Travail de Bruxelles) has established a working group dedicated to this topic. In order to provide a complete picture of the effects of digital light, the question of additional glare contribution by digital informations, i.e. extra projected light in form of patterns, symbols or areas was addressed in this research study. This article will show the investigations on wet and dry road glare while driving with digital informations. Objective data about the glare investigation and respective driving situation will be presented.
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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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Properties and Limitation of an Oxide Coated Aluminum Brake Rotor

Audi AG-Sebastian Gramstat, Anton Stich
Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt-Ulrich Tetzlaff
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The electrification of the powertrain and the thereto related recuperation of the electric engine saves the energy in the battery and thus reduces the thermally dissipated brake energy, which leads to lower brake rotor temperatures compared to combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These new conditions enable to reconsider brake disc concepts. Including lightweight design in heavy battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the increasingly reliant corrosion resistance of brake rotors, Aluminum is a promising approach for new brake disc concepts.In the past, Aluminum brake disc concepts have already been deployed. For instance Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite (Al-MMC) concepts in the Lotus Elise S1 and on the rear axle of the Volvo V40 [1].The presented concept is a different approach and separates the friction system from the bulk Aluminum brake disc, achieved by coating of the friction rings. By locally reinforcing the friction rings, the good machinability and ductility of the base body is maintained and simultaneously the friction surface is sufficiently protected to resist the frictional loading during a brake application.In this work, fundamental studies on a brake…
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Investigations of the Measurement Layout for Brake Particle Emissions

Audi AG-Sebastian Gramstat, Robert Waninger
Horiba Europe GmbH-Dmytro Lugovyy, Matthias Schroeder
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Non-exhaust emissions in general and brake particle emissions in particular have become very relevant during the last years. Even if many investigations and efforts are under progress, no common test standards exist so far. Many mechanisms and possible impacts are not fully understood either.Hence, the authors continued their investigations by using an already refined and proved test setup, which is the base for further characterizations and enhancements.The presented studies include the characterization of three different friction couples (using the same brake system) for two different test cycles (namely a modified AK Master and a WLTP) in terms of particle number concentration.Additionally, the major differences of the modified AK Master and the WLTP are investigated and analyzed.Finally, results of particle mass characterizations introduced.A brief summary and some conclusions are presented in the final chapter.
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Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

Audi AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Hartmut Diel, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Gordon Röttger
FKFS-Michael Grill
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit. Little attention has been given to the influence of different combustion chamber designs on the prediction capability so far. This leads to an often used simplification consisting of a combustion chamber modeled as a disk and an acceptable inaccuracy of combustion modelling. With an increasing deviation of…
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Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Florian Bach
Universitat Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide. This study investigates the question of which sustainable fuels offer the characteristics suitable for high-performance race engines. Equivalents to gasoline, diesel and natural gas are examined separately in order to present the options with various engine concepts. The requirements for a high-performance fuel are…
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Optimization of Trim Component and Reduction of the Road Noise Transmission Based on Finite Element Methods

Audi AG-Antoine Guellec
Free Field Technologies-Marie Cabrol, Jonathan Jacqmot, Benoit Van den Nieuwenhof
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in NVH behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise transmission through trim packages has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. The incrementally restrictive weight and space constraints force today CAE engineers to seek for optimized trim package solution. This paper presents a two-steps process which aims to reduce the structure borne road noise due to floor panel using a coupled simulation with MSC NASTRAN and Actran.The embossment of the supporting steel structure, the material properties of porous layers and the thickness of visco-elastic patches are the design variables of the optimization process. The optimization of the beads and embossments of the metallic floor structure is first performed using NASTRAN SOL200 topography optimizer while considering a reference acoustic trim configuration. Once the optimum embossment pattern is found, the optimization of the visco-elastic patches properties and the trim package is started…
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