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SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety
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Driving Simulator Performance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, USA-Nivedita U. Jerath, Nazan Aksan, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Michael E. Shy
University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA-Matthew Rizzo
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0003
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: This study evaluates driving ability in those with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A, a hereditary peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Individuals with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A (n = 18, age = 42 ± 7) and controls (n = 19; age = 35 ± 10) were evaluated in a driving simulator. The Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score version 2 was obtained for individuals. Rank Sum test and Spearman rank correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results: A 74% higher rate of lane departures and an 89% higher rate of lane deviations were seen in those with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A than for controls (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). Lane control variability was 10% higher for the individual group and correlated with the neuropathy score (rS = 0.518, p = 0.040), specifically sensory loss (rS = 0.710, p = 0.002) and pinprick sensation loss in the leg (rS = 0.490, p = 0.054). Discussion: Driving simulator assessment demonstrated more lane control errors in those with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A, which correlated with lower extremity sensory loss. There was…
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Hewing Out Evacuation Routes for Burning Buses by Linear-Shaped Charge Jet

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Nanchang University, China-Yanshu Fu, Chaoyang Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0002
Published 2019-01-25 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, several buses have ignited in some cities in China, causing numerous deaths and significant property damage. However, few research studies have been conducted to deal with such accidents. Therefore, in this work, a linear-shaped charge jet with rectangular cross sections was used to hew out evacuation routes for burning buses, and the parameter design for the shaped charge jet was improved according to asymmetry limitations and human tolerance. A numerical finite element simulation model of the behavior of a jet penetrating the jambs was established using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The asymmetrical characteristics of an arc segment in the structure of a rectangular-shaped charge were analyzed, in addition to the influence on the deviations of the jet penetration capacity and blast injuries to occupants caused by the side effects of detonation. Furthermore, overlooking the risks posed to bystanders by the process of hewing out evacuation routes, the calculation results revealed that the improved scheme could effectively ensure the security of the near-field occupants. Barrier-free evacuation routes could be utilized within microseconds.
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Artificial Lightning Tests on Metal and CFRP Automotive Bodies: A Comparative Study

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Japan-Hiroshi Makishima
Nippon Institute of Technology, Japan-Sultan A. Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Hiroyuki Shimizu
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0001
Published 2019-01-07 by SAE International in United States
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used in automobiles as well as airplanes. Because of its light weight and high strength, CFRP is a good choice for making vehicle bodies lighter, which would improve fuel economy. Conventional metal bodies provide a convenient body return for electric wiring and offer good shielding against electromagnetic fields. Although CFRP is a conductor, its conductivity is much lower than that of metals. Therefore, CFRP bodies are usually not useful for electric wiring. In thunderstorms, an automotive body is considered to be a Faraday cage that protects the vehicle’s occupants from the potential harms of lightning. Before CFRP becomes widely applied to automotive bodies, its electric and electromagnetic properties need to be investigated in order to determine whether it also works as a Faraday cage against lightning. In this article, CFRP and metal body vehicles were tested under artificial lightning. The electric discharging caused by the artificial lightning in the vehicles was investigated under different grounding conditions. A CFRP roof plate and a CFRP box mimicking vehicle cabin were…
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A Novel Metaheuristic for Adaptive Signal Timing Optimization Considering Emergency Vehicle Preemption and Tram Priority

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Universite Mohammed V de Rabat Ecole Mohammadia d'Ingenieurs, Morocco-Maryam Alami Chentoufi, Rachid Ellaia
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0007
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
In this article, a novel hybrid metaheuristic based on passing vehicle search (PVS) cultural algorithm (CA) is proposed. This contribution has a twofold aim: First is to present the new hybrid PVS-CA. Second is to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for adaptive signal timing optimization. For this, a system that can adapt efficiently to the real-time traffic situation based on priority signal control is developed. Hence, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) techniques have been used to adjust signal phasing in order to serve emergency vehicles (EVs) and manage the tram priority in a coordinated tram intersection. The system used in this study provides cyclic signal operation based on a real-time control approach, including an optimization process and a database to manage the sensor data from detectors for real-time predictions of EV and tram arrival time. Then, a simulation model is developed using Arena Simulation Software to evaluate best timing plans at the intersection.
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Eleven Instrumented Motorcycle Crash Tests and Development of Updated Motorcycle Impact-Speed Equations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Axiom Forensic, United States-Louis Peck
Collision Engineering Associates, Inc., United States-Charles Dickerson
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0004
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Eleven instrumented crash tests were performed as part of the 2016 World Reconstruction Exposition (WREX2016), using seven Harley-Davidson motorcycles and three automobiles. For all tests, the automobile was stationary while the motorcycle was delivered into the vehicle, while upright with tires rolling, at varying speeds. Seven tests were performed at speeds between 30 and 46 mph while four low-speed tests were performed to establish the onset of permanent motorcycle deformation. Data from these tests, and other published testing, was analyzed using previously published equations to determine their accuracy when predicting the impact speed of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The most accurate model was the Modified Eubanks set of equations introduced in 2009, producing errors with an average of 0.4 mph and a standard deviation (SD) of 4.8 mph. An updated set of Eubanks-style equations were developed adding data published since 2009, and further partitioning from two equations (pillars/axles and doors/fenders) to four equations (axles, pillars/bumpers, doors, and fenders). When applied to the subject tests, the newly developed set of equations produced an average error of 3.5 mph…
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Factors Affecting the Severity of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes in Tunisia

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Najran University, Saudi Arabia-Mounir Belloumi
University of Sousse, Tunisia-Fedy Ouni
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0006
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
We investigate the contribution of several variables concerning the severity of accidents involving vehicle occupant and pedestrian victims in Tunisia. In order to investigate the effect of various explanatory variables, Odds Ratio (OR) effects are considered for both serious injury accidents and fatal accidents. The empirical results are of great variety. The vehicle-occupant severity model indicates that male drivers are associated with higher severity levels as compared to female drivers. Added to that, accidents occurring in rainy conditions increase the likelihood of fatal injuries but have no significant effect on other injury severity levels. Among driver contributory factors, a driver under the influence of alcohol or drug is associated with an increased risk of sustaining fatal injuries compared to other driver contributory factors. The season factor shows that accident severity during the summer season is high. Among time of accident, daytime periods indicate a high likelihood of severe injuries as compared to nighttime periods. Another finding of the study is that the day of accident and region of accident increases the probability of severe injury.…
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Factors Affecting the Severity of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes in Tunisia

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Najran University, Saudi Arabia-Mounir Belloumi
University of Sousse, Tunisia-Fedy Ouni
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0006
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
We investigate the contribution of several variables concerning the severity of accidents involving vehicle occupant and pedestrian victims in Tunisia. In order to investigate the effect of various explanatory variables, Odds Ratio (OR) effects are considered for both serious injury accidents and fatal accidents. The empirical results are of great variety. The vehicle-occupant severity model indicates that male drivers are associated with higher severity levels as compared to female drivers. Added to that, accidents occurring in rainy conditions increase the likelihood of fatal injuries but have no significant effect on other injury severity levels. Among driver contributory factors, a driver under the influence of alcohol or drug is associated with an increased risk of sustaining fatal injuries compared to other driver contributory factors. The season factor shows that accident severity during the summer season is high. Among time of accident, daytime periods indicate a high likelihood of severe injuries as compared to nighttime periods. Another finding of the study is that the day of accident and region of accident increases the probability of severe injury.…
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Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Variables Affecting the Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC) in Various Crash Scenarios

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Bowhead (Systems and Technology Group), United States-Vikas Hasija
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, United States-Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0005
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Incompressibility of the brain makes it susceptible to damage from shear strains. Head rotational motion can easily produce high shear strains causing brain injury. Since head injury criterion (HIC) does not account for rotational motion, a brain injury criterion (BrIC) was developed. To design potential countermeasures for reducing BrIC, it is important to investigate the parameters that influence BrIC. This article focuses on parametric analysis to examine the sensitivity of BrIC to vehicle design and crash-related parameters, and identifying important parameters which can be controlled in developing countermeasures for reducing BrIC. Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male simplified human finite element (FE) model was used in this study. Four different analyses were conducted: a Design of Experiments (DOE) study to investigate sensitivity of BrIC to impact direction and crash pulse severity b DOE studies, with fixed crash severity, for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to identify important vehicle design parameters influencing BrIC c Optimization for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to minimize…
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