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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Investigation of Wheel Ventilation-Drag using a Modular Wheel Design Concept

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Alexey Vdovin, Lennart Lofdahl
Technische Universität Berlin-Sabine Bonitz
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0953
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance.This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size.The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works. The magnitude of the measured ventilation resistance confirms the conclusion that this effect should be taken into account when designing a wheel.It was found that some of the rim design factors have greater influences on the ventilation resistance than others. It was also shown…
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A Review of Some Cooling Air Flow Measurement Techniques for Model Scale, Full Scale and CFD

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

FKFS-Timo Kuthada
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0598
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Each component of a drive train generates waste heat due to its limited efficiency. This waste heat is usually released to an air flow guided through one or more heat exchangers. So, the realized cooling air volume flow is one important characteristic value during the vehicle development process.This paper presents some of the available techniques for the measurement of cooling air volume flow in the vehicle during the different stages of an aerodynamic development process in model scale and full scale. Additionally, it provides suggestions when comparing these experimental values to CFD results.
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Experimental Investigation of Tire Dynamic Strain Characteristics for Developing Strain-Based Intelligent Tire System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Federal Highway Administration-Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Univ of Birmingham-Xiaoguang Yang, Oluremi Olatunbosun
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0633
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for ground vehicles safety has led to the requirements for effective and accurate vehicle active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS). As the only link between vehicle and road, the tire is in a very privileged position in a vehicle to acquire vital information which could be used to improve vehicle dynamics control systems. Hence the requirement for an “intelligent tire” that incorporates a system that is able to sense the tire and road conditions, and then interact with the vehicle dynamics control system to optimize the vehicle performance as well as provide warning information to the driver. In this paper, an experimental tire strain-based system is used to establish the proof of concept of an intelligent tire prototype. This experimental system comprises a data acquisition device and three rectangular rosette strain sensors, which can measure the tire surface dynamic strain in real time. Indoor tire rolling tests including steady state straight line and cornering are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the measuring tire…
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Rule Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller for Full Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

IAE, TU Braunschweig-Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0991
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new and effective control concept for semi-active suspension systems. The proposed controller uses a Fuzzy Logic scheme which offers new opportunities in the improvement of vehicle ride performance. The Fuzzy Logic scheme tunes the controller to treat the conflict requirements of ride comfort and road holding parameters within a specified range of the suspension deflection. An eleven degree of freedom full vehicle ride dynamics model is constructed and validated through laboratory tests performed on a hydraulic four-poster shaker. A new optimization process for obtaining the optimum Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the optimum rule-base of the proposed semi-active suspension controller is proposed. Discrete optimization has been performed with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find the global optima of the cost function which considers the ride comfort and road holding performance of the full vehicle. The proposed Fuzzy Logic semi-active controller is compared to the optimum Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) semi-active controller and the optimum passive suspension system in terms of ride comfort and road holding. The results showed that the proposed…
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Reducing Radiated Structural Noise from AIS Surfaces using Several FEM Optimization Methods

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Chrysler Group LLC-John A. White, Mac Lynch
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0997
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Two finite element optimization techniques are presented for minimizing automotive engine air induction structural radiated noise and mass. Air induction systems are generally made of thin wall plastic which is exposed to high levels of pulsating engine noise. Weak air induction system walls vibrate excessively creating noise that can be heard by the driver. The conventional approach is to add ribs (many times through trial and error) which increase part weight or by adding “kiss-offs,” which restrict air flow.The finite element optimization methods considered here are shape optimization and topometry optimization. Genesis, a fully integrated finite element analysis and optimization package by Vanderplaats Research & Development, was used to perform finite element optimization. Choice of optimization method is primarily dependent on several factors which are appearance, part interference and flow restriction requirements. “GT Power” was used to model the complete engine air flow system and calculate local acoustic pressure levels for modal frequency response analysis. Node velocity results of the structural analysis were applied to an external BEM acoustic model. “LMS Virtual Lab” was used…
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Coordination of Steer Angles, Tyre Inflation Pressure, Brake and Drive Torques for Vehicle Dynamics Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Nanyang Technological University-Barys Shyrokau, Danwei Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0712
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
During vehicle operation, the control objectives of stability, handling, energy consumption and comfort have different priorities, which are determined by road conditions and driver behavior. To achieve better operation characteristics of vehicle, coordinated control of vehicle subsystems is actively used. The fact of more active vehicle subsystems in a modern passenger car provides more flexibility for vehicle control and control algorithm development. Since the modern vehicle can be considered as over-actuated system, control allocation is an effective control technique to solve such kind of problem.This paper describes coordination of frictional brake system, individual-wheel drive electric motors, active front and rear steering, active camber mechanisms and tyre pressure control system. To coordinate vehicle subsystems, optimization-based control allocation with dynamic weights is applied. The influence of different weights (subsystem restriction) on criteria of vehicle dynamics (RMSE of yaw rate, sideslip angle, dynamic tyre load factor) and energy consumption and losses (consumed/recuperated energy during maneuver, longitudinal velocity decline, tyre energy dissipation) were analyzed. Based on this analysis, the optimal solution was selected. The proposed control strategy is based…
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Instantaneous Estimation of Road Friction based on Front Tire SAT using Kalman Filter

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Takuro Matsuda, Shin-ichiro Jo, Hikaru Nishira, Yoshitaka Deguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0680
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a method of estimating road friction and tire slip angle in a cornering maneuver. The method can estimate front tire road friction accurately at low lateral acceleration because it is based on the tire self-aligning torque (SAT) that exhibits high sensitivity to road friction at low slip angles. Road friction and tire slip angle, which are mutually interdependent, are estimated simultaneously using an extended Kalman filter designed around a model describing the relationship between road friction and SAT and a vehicle lateral dynamic model. The front tire SAT is calculated with a mathematical model that describes the torque transmission characteristics from the electric power steering torque to SAT. Therefore, the proposed method is readily applicable to production vehicles. Results of an experimental study show that the change in road friction is instantaneously estimated at low lateral acceleration.
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The Effect of Suspension Types and Tuning on Vehicle Durability

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Hyundai-Kia Motors-Dae-Un Sung, Eun-Joo Kim, June-Yeop Kim, Chun Woo Shin, Won Wook Jung
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1437
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
As a new vehicle is based on common vehicle platform, the durability problems of chassis components in development stage are decreasing. However a vehicle body structure is changed by exterior design and a chassis and a suspension are tuned by vehicle performance targets. The main issue on developing a new vehicle is to satisfy the durability target of a body structure and tuned suspension components. The accuracy of durability Computer Aided Engineering analysis is mainly depending on the accuracy of input loads and boundary conditions on suspension system. The input loads should be estimated accurately. These could be changed by vehicle specifications such as vehicle weight, wheel base and so on. It is also affected by the change of suspension types and tuning parameters.This paper presents the experimental parametric study results using road load data analysis techniques. The previous research presents the effect of vehicle parameters such as vehicle weight, wheel base, wheel tread, vehicle center of gravity, tire size, tire air pressure and so on. In this research suspension types and tuning parameters such…
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Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automobile Cradle Mount

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Chrysler Group LLC-Yung-Li Lee
Univ. of Toledo-Touhid Zarrin-Ghalami, Ali Fatemi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1009
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Elastomers have large reversible elastic deformation, good damping and high energy absorption capabilities. Due to these characteristics along with low cost of manufacturing, elastomeric components are widely used in many industries and applications, including in automobiles. These components are typically subjected to complex multiaxial and variable amplitude cyclic loads during their service life. Therefore, fatigue failure and life prediction are important issues in the design and analyses of these components. Availability of an effective CAE technique to evaluate fatigue damage and to predict fatigue life under complex loading conditions is a valuable tool for such analysis. This paper discusses a general CAE analytical technique for durability analysis and life prediction of elastomeric components. The methodology is then illustrated and verified by using experimental fatigue test results from an automobile cradle mount. The developed methodology involves constitutive behavior and fatigue behavior of the material, finite element analysis of the component, and fatigue damage quantification for life predictions. The commonly used Rainflow cycle counting method and Miner linear cumulative damage rule for metals are also evaluated for…
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Aerodynamic Drag Reduction on a Simple Car-Like Shape with Rear Upper Body Taper

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Loughborough University-Martin Passmore, Simon Tuplin
Tata Motors European Technical Centre-Jeff Howell
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0462
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Various techniques to reduce the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies through the mechanism of base pressure recovery have been investigated. These include, for example, boat-tailing, base cavities and base bleed. In this study a simple body representing a car shape is modified to include tapering of the rear upper body on both roof and sides. The effects of taper angle and taper length on drag and lift characteristics are investigated. It is shown that a significant drag reduction can be obtained with moderate taper angles. An unexpected feature is a drag rise at a particular taper length. Pressure data obtained on the rear surfaces and some wake flow visualisation using PIV are presented.
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