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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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A Study on Design Factors of Gas Pedal Operation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Hiroshima University-Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Toshio Tsuji
Mazda Motor Corp.-Masayoshi Horiue, Ohtsubo tomonori, Hiroshi Okiyama
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0073
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Lateral distance from the center of a driver's seating position to the gas and brake pedals is one of the main design factors that relates to the ease of stepping on the pedals from one and the other. It is important to keep a certain distance between the pedals to prevent erroneous operations or to reduce the driver's anxiety.In this paper, we explain that the distance between the pedals is affected by the driver's seating height. In other words, if the driver sits lower, the accuracy of stepping on the pedals from the gas pedal to the brake pedal will increase compared to the higher seating position. In addition, we found out that providing auxiliary parts for the leg support enhances the accuracy of the pedal operations.
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Influence of Complying with FMVSS 226 (Ejection Mitigation) on Side Airbag Occupant Out of Position Injury Assessment

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Autoliv North America Inc-Abe Mitchell, Daniel Fulk
Nissan Technical Center North America, Inc.-Jeff Dix, Selim Hammoud, Alex Cardinali
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0466
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified ejection mitigation as a top priority, issuing a final rule for FMVSS 226, Ejection Mitigation, in January of 2011 to set performance standards for a vehicle's ejection mitigation countermeasures to mitigate the risk of ejection through a vehicle's side window openings. The most likely countermeasures to be used for compliance with this standard are rollover activated curtain airbags that deploy from a vehicle's roof rail. However, this rule will most likely result in increases in the coverage area and inflator outputs of the curtain airbag; which may influence out-of-position occupant injury as measured in the test methods that have been outlined by the Side Airbag Out-of-Position Injury Technical Working Group (TWG). This paper presents a case study in which the out-of-position performance of a curtain airbag optimized for both ejection mitigation and side impact protection, as outlined per FMVSS 226 and FMVSS 214 respectively, is compared with that of one developed for side impact protection only for the same vehicle. Furthermore, the authors present a design…
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Co-Simulation of Multiple Software Packages for Model Based Control Development and Full Vehicle System Evaluation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors-Anthony Will
General Motors Company-Yanying Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0951
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Recent advancements in simulation software and computational hardware make it realizable to simulate a full vehicle system comprised of multiple sub-models developed in different modeling languages. The so-called, co-simulation allows one to develop a control strategy and evaluate various aspects of a vehicle system, such as fuel efficiency and vehicle drivability, in a cost-effective manner. In order to study the feasibility of the synchronized parallel processing in co-simulation this paper presents two co-simulation frameworks for a complete vehicle system with multiple heterogeneous subsystem models. In the first approach, subsystem models are co-simulated in a serial configuration, and the same sub-models are co-simulated in a parallel configuration in the second approach. In order to demonstrate their capability, these two co-simulation methods are applied to a full vehicle system with two sub-models developed in different simulation environments: GT-POWER for the engine and MATLAB/Simulink for the driveline and the vehicle dynamics. The simulation results closely match experimental data, although there exist some discrepancies in their relative magnitudes. However, when compared together, the two co-simulation methods produce nearly the…
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Optimization Strategies to Explore Multiple Optimal Solutions and Its Application to Restraint System Design

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue, Sumeet Parashar
Ford Motor Co.-Guosong Li, Yan Fu
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0578
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Design optimization techniques are widely used to drive designs toward a global or a near global optimal solution. However, the achieved optimal solution often appears to be the only choice that an engineer/designer can select as the final design. This is caused by either problem topology or by the nature of optimization algorithms to converge quickly in local/global optimal or both. Problem topology can be unimodal or multimodal with many local and/or global optimal solutions. For multimodal problems, most global algorithms tend to exploit the global optimal solution quickly but at the same time leaving the engineer with only one choice of design. The paper explores the application of genetic algorithms (GA), simulated annealing (SA), and mixed integer problem sequential quadratic programming (MIPSQP) to find multiple local and global solutions using single objective optimization formulation. The techniques are applied to a couple of mathematical problems as well as a restraint system design problem. Results are compared thoroughly in terms of the quality of local convergence, convergence speed, and most importantly the ability to explore multiple…
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Numerical Simulations of Aeroacoustic Fields around Automobile Rear-View Mirrors

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.-Yoshihiro Kato
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0586
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A numerical method to simulate aeroacoustic fields around automobiles is proposed in the present paper. The proposed method can be used to compute sound emissions directly in both far fields and near fields. Sound passes through body structures near A-pillars and rear-view mirrors. The direct predictions of the sound to passengers therefore require solutions of acoustic near fields. Most aeroacoustics simulations around automobiles are based on Lighthill's analogy. Strictly speaking, Lighthill's analogy is not consistent in near fields because near fields are not governed by a simple wave equation. In the present paper, a proper approach is proposed to achieve further progress in the simulation of aeroacoustic fields around automobiles. The difficulties occur because the sound pressure is much smaller than the vortical flow pressure. The present method uses a flow/acoustics splitting technique that derives the modeled acoustic equations under the assumption that there is no acoustic feedback to the flows. The present acoustic equations are defined based on the difference between the compressible and incompressible flow equations. The acoustic equations are calculated with the…
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Thermoplastic Reflector Design for Robust Optical Performance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

GE India Technology Center Pvt Ltd-Triloka Tankala, Poovanna TK, Arunachala p
SABIC Innovative Plastics-Russell Bloomfield, James Wilson
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0266
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A headlamp reflector has many performance requirements. Principal among these is the need to deliver a compliant beam pattern while withstanding a severe heat environment. In serving this requirement, the reflector must reliably secure the light source (bulb filament) relative to the optical prescription (facets) of the reflector.Traditionally, achieving this performance requirement has been challenging since the reflector elements which are designed to deliver stable and reliable optical performance, are the same elements which must also withstand thermal stresses and adjustment-related static stresses within the reflector. The integrity of these optical elements may also be limited by surface sink, especially in the bulb fastening and attachment locations.The current work describes the design of a reflector bracket through which these forces can be minimized and accommodated while delivering robust optical performance. Improved Optical performance of the reflector is presented by comparing with a traditional reflector mounting approach.
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Vehicle Lighting and Modern Roundabouts: Implications for Pedestrian Safety

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0268
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Modern roundabout facilities are increasing in number throughout North America and the world. Appropriate vehicle lighting, including the application of intelligent headlighting systems, might help support safe, efficient driving behavior while navigating through these new intersection types. We present the results of a field study conducted to compare different vehicle lighting systems in terms of drivers' ability to detect and identify pedestrian activity, under different amounts of illumination from fixed outdoor lighting systems. The results are compared to analytical predictions of visibility using a validated visual performance model.
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Influencing Factors of Contact Force Distribution in Pedestrian Upper Legform Impact with Vehicle Front-End

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Tsinghua University-Bingbing Nie, Jun Huang, Yong Xia, Qing Zhou
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0272
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrian upper leg impact protection is a challenging requirement in the Euro NCAP assessment. In upper legform to bonnet leading edge tests, the legform impact force, the legform intrusion and the injury parameters (impact force and bending moment measured on the upper legform) are highly related to design of vehicle front-end styling and structure, as well as clearance underneath bonnet leading edge. In the course of impact, the contact area variation has significant influence on the stress distribution and consequently the force and the bending moment on the upper legform. Using finite element simulations of upper legform impact with a typical sedan, the deformation of the legform and the vehicle structure, and the variation of the contact force distribution are characterized and analyzed. Based on the study, a method for calculating the contact force is put forward by assuming a shape of the contact zone on the upper legform and a stress distribution function within the contact zone. The calculation method is verified using a simplified model of vehicle front-end structure developed in a previous…
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Headform Impact Tests to Assess Energy Management of Seat Back Contact Points Associated with Head Injury for Pediatric Occupants

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Autoliv Research-Katarina Bohman
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia-Kristy B. Arbogast, Matthew R. Maltese, Caitlin Locey
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0561
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Head injuries are the most common injuries sustained by children in motor vehicle crashes regardless of age, restraint and crash direction. Previous research identified the front seat back as relevant contact point associated with head injuries sustained by restrained rear seated child occupants. The objective of this study was to conduct a test series of headform impacts to seat backs to evaluate the energy management characteristics of relevant contact points for pediatric head injury.A total of eight seats were tested: two each of 2007 Ford Focus, Toyota Corolla, 2006 Volvo S40, and 2008 Volkswagen Golf. Five to six contact points were chosen for each unique seat model guided by contact locations determined from real world crashes. Each vehicle seat was rigidly mounted in the center track position with the seatback angle adjusted to 70 degrees above the horizontal. A 3.5 kg child pedestrian headform was fired at a velocity of 24 km/h (6.67 m/s) in accordance to FMVSS 201 at 22 degrees above the horizontal starting from 10 cm from the center of the target.…
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Comparison of Reponses of the Flex-PLI and TRL Legform Impactors in Pedestrian Tests

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

DENSO CORPORATION-Daisuke Nakane, Shingo Wanami
Nagoya Univ.-Koji Mizuno, Takaharu Ueyama
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0270
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Injuries to the lower extremities are one of the major issues in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions. To evaluate pedestrian lower extremity protection, the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impact tests have been conducted according to the specifications in the EU directive. The TRL legform impactor consists of a tibia and a femur steel shaft connected by deformable knee bars. A Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI), which has flexible femur and tibia, is examined in the Global Technical Regulation (GTR). Previous studies compared the responses of both impactors; however, the relation between the tibia acceleration in the TRL legform impactor and the maximum bending moment in the Flex-PLI (both injury measures are for the tibia fracture) is not understood sufficiently. In this study, using finite element (FE) analyses, the injury measures of the TRL legform and the Flex-PLI were compared with those of the human FE model in impact with a simple large car model to identify which injury measures of the two impactors are reasonable to predict injury risk to pedestrian lower extremity.The rigid body model was…
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