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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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FPGA-Based Development for Sophisticated Automotive Embedded Safety Critical System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Infineon Technologies Austria AG-Thang Nguyen
TRW Automotive-Stuart Wooters
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0240
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
As software (SW) becomes more and more an important aspect of embedded system development, project schedules are requiring the earlier development of software simultaneously with hardware (HW). In addition, verification has increasingly challenged the design of complex mixed-signal SoC products. This is exacerbated for automotive safety critical SoC products with a high number of analogue interfaces (sensors and actuators) to the physical components such as an airbag SoC chipset. Generally, it is widely accepted that verification accounts for around 70% of the total SoC development. Since integration of HW and SW is the most crucial step in embedded system development, the sooner it is done, the sooner verification can begin. As such, any approaches which could allow verification and integration of HW/SW to be deployed earlier in the development process and help to decrease verification effort, (e.g.: accelerate verification runs) are of extreme interest.In the described context, this paper addresses not only the design and verification challenges of such embedded systems but also proposes a new development, verification and validation workflow using an FPGA-based SoC…
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Air Leak Detection for a Turbocharged SI Engine using Robust Estimation of the Turbocharger Dynamics

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Sharif University of Technology-Rasoul Salehi, Aria Alasty, Gholam-Reza Vossoughi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0279
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Proper operation of an internal combustion engine is required by demands of a vehicle driver and governmental legislations. Therefore it is necessary to monitor, within an online technique, the engine and detect any fault which disrupts its normal operation. In this paper, the air-charge path, as a key element in a turbocharged engine, is monitored for an air leakage fault. At first, a robust algorithm to estimate unmeasured turbocharger rotational speed is presented. The sliding mode methodology is used to design the estimator which is shown to be robust to the compressor modeling uncertainties. The estimation error from the sliding mode observer (SMO) is then used to detect abnormal behavior of the turbocharger along with the engine due to a leakage fault in the air-charge path. Experimental results from a modern turbocharged SI engine indicate the designed monitoring technique is able to detect a leakage fault, of 7 mm or higher sizes, in the air-charge path.
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Allocation-Based Fault Tolerant Control for Electric Vehicles with X-by-Wire

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

ASCL, Jilin University-Yu Wang, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu, Sumin Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0866
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposed a novel fault-tolerant control method based on control allocation via dynamic constrained optimization for electric vehicles with XBW systems. The total vehicle control command is first derived based on interpretation on driver's intention as a set of desired vehicle body forces, which is further dynamically distributed to the control command of each actuator among vehicle four corners. A dynamic constrained optimization method is proposed with the cost function set to be a linear combination of multiple control objectives, such that the control allocation problem is transformed into a linear programming formulation. An analytical yet explicit solution is then derived, which not only provides a systematic approach in handling the actuation faults, but also is efficient and real-time feasible for in-vehicle implementation. The simulation results show that the proposed method is valid and effective in maintaining vehicle operation as expected even with faults.
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Effective Functional Safety Concept Generation in the Context of ISO 26262

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Darren Sexton, Antonio Priore, John Botham
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0207
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The functional safety concept definition is the backbone of a project's safety process; poor choices made at this stage can have significant impact. A weak concept may result in over-engineering of systems; late re-work when missing safety requirements are eventually uncovered at advanced stages of the development process; disagreements within the supply chains regarding responsibility for safety mechanisms; or, of most concern, release of an unsafe product. Despite this importance, ISO 26262 states that the functional safety requirements are to be derived from the safety goals (top-level safety requirements) and only notes that safety analysis might be used to support this task, giving no further guidance on how this might be done.The automotive industry's typical time pressures mean that being able rapidly to produce an initial safety concept is critical if it is to influence the system architecture and procurement decisions. At the same time, a high degree of confidence that the functional safety requirements are effective is necessary. There is therefore a balance between rapidly producing a concept versus assurance that it is complete…
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Airbag Deployment Thresholds from Analysis of the NASS EDR Database

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

InSciTech Inc.-Matthew Wood, Nicholas Earnhart, Kelly Kennett
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0496
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Accident reconstructionists and others use airbag non-deployment thresholds as an indicator of severity in minor- to moderate-severity accidents. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) has accessed and recorded the data stored in the airbag control modules of nearly 6,300 vehicles since 2000 and has made these data publicly available. The goal of this study is to ascertain thresholds from the data based on delta-V and seatbelt use, studying how they may differ among manufacturers and over time. Other data is also examined, such as seatbelt pre-tensioner fire times and airbag deployment signal times. These data have been analyzed for use in accident reconstruction for vehicles which may or may not be supported by a publicly available module download tool. While manufacturers at one point published deployment data in owner's manuals, this has not been the case for approximately five to ten years. The dataset analysis will compare the published data for deployment thresholds to real world accidents. Over time, with the addition of occupant classification systems and dual-stage airbags, there has been an increase in…
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EMC Management in HEV/EV Applications

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Automotive-Rich Boyer
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0219
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Shielding of the high voltage cabling is a cost effective method for reducing unwanted EMI in hybrid and electric vehicles. Ensuring the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the high voltage (HV) cabling and connectors is critical at the component and subsystem level. The effectiveness of the shielding must also be proven for the useful life of the vehicle. This paper will examine some of the critical aspects of ensuring good SE of HV cabling and connectors in hybrid and electric vehicles. This paper will also review some of the test methods utilized to make these measurements.
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Active Brake Pedal Feedback Simulator Based on Electric Drive

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

KIT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Michael Flad, Simon Rothfuss, Gunter Diehm, Sören Hohmann
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0325
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Brake pedal feedback is important for driver's perception during the driving task as well as the pedal feel is an important factor in customer satisfaction. Therefore, a force emulation device is beneficial during the design phase to evaluate the pedal characteristic. Such a system is also needed for driving simulators. Usually, brake feedback systems in simulators rely on passive elements like springs and dampers to emulate the force. This does not allow the implementation of an arbitrary nonlinear pedal force characteristic. In this paper we propose an active pedal feedback simulator which can emulate an arbitrarily customizable and online adjustable brake pedal characteristic. The particular advantage of our pedal simulator is that the system can also emulate the exact pedal dynamics. This is advantageous compared to other active brake feedback simulators which rely on hydraulic actors. We show the mechatronic, electronic and software concept along with the required control framework and state observer. For verification the pedal simulator is parameterized with a dynamic pedal force model of a conventional middle sized car. We show that…
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A Statistical Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of Electrical Distribution Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Universitaet Kassel-Ludwig Brabetz, Mohamed Ayeb
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0223
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
For the prevention of technical risks and the optimum design of an electrical distribution system, considerable efforts have been made to implement thermal models of wires, bundles, and electromechanical components in order to improve thermal analysis. Unfortunately, in most cases, important input parameters such as the position of a wire within a bundle or the profiles of the currents are unknown. This leads to the use of worst-case scenarios, frequently providing unrealistic results and uneconomic over-dimensioning.The proposed approach is based on the thermal simulation of a large number of randomly-generated bundle configurations for given profiles of currents. Thus one gets a temperature distribution, allowing a much more precise analysis compared to a simple worst-case calculation. By applying the same method to various current profiles, one gets temperature distributions for each wire as a function of a normalized total bundle current. The finding is that statistics allow a very good thermal assessment despite unknown bundle configurations and current profiles. The paper presents initial experimental data and simulation results followed by a discussion of future possibilities.
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In-Vehicle Touchscreen Concepts Revisited: Approaches and Possibilities

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Takata AG-Lisa Diwischek, Stefanie Essers
Takata Holdings Inc.-Jason Lisseman, David Andrews
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0266
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The last years have seen an increasing amount of innovations in the functionality of car electronics (e.g. advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and in-vehicle infotainment systems (IVIS)). These electrical systems are not reserved for premium cars anymore, but additionally reach mid-size, compact, and subcompact cars.The growing number of functionalities in these cars entails increasing amount of interfaces, which may confuse, overload, or annoy the driver. Accompanying this, there is a trend towards the integration of capacitive touchscreens as user interfaces. These touchscreens were implemented first in consumer electronics and had a substantial impact on the way in which users interact with technology. This in turn has led to an increased user driven demand for the technology to be implemented in other domains, even in safety-critical ones like the automotive area.Capacitive touchscreens have certain drawbacks in their distraction potential and their usability, leading to safety-critical situations and negative user feedback.This paper will present a problem-driven approach towards touch input and a range of technical solution possibilities. The focus lies on the generation of a holistic touch…
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Prediction of Temperature Field Inside Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Similarity Theory

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Tongji Univ.-Lijun Zhang, Hongzheng Cheng, Kun Diao, Cheng Ruan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1841
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
To accurately and efficiently predict the temperature fields inside a lithium-ion battery is key technology for the enhancement of battery thermal management and the improvement of battery performances. The dimensional analysis method is applied to derive similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients of battery interior temperature fields, based on the governing partial differential equations describing the three dimensional transient temperature field.To verify the correctness of similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients, 3D finite element models of battery temperature field are established with a prototype and scale model, on the assumption that the battery cell has single-layer structure and multi-layers structure separately. The simulation results show that the similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients are correct. The calculation efficiency is checked to be much more efficient compared with FEM model based on the original cell structure in aspect of amount of resources occupied.Then the thermal behavior of the battery cell under different discharge rates is investigated. The results indicate that temperature rise and temperature gradient are both much more significant when battery undergoes high-rate discharges.Thus the…
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