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Structural Evaluation of an Experimental Aluminum/Magnesium Decklid

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

General Motors Company-Jon T. Carter, Andres R. Melo, Vesna Savic, Louis Gerard Hector, Paul E. Krajewski
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0075
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Experimental decklids for the Cadillac STS sedan were made with Al AA5083 sheet outer panels and Mg AZ31B sheet inner panels using regular-production forming processes and hardware. Joining and coating processes were developed to accommodate the unique properties of Mg. Assembled decklids were evaluated for dimensional accuracy, slam durability, and impact response. The assemblies performed very well in these tests. Explicit and implicit finite element simulations of decklids were conducted, and showed that the Al/Mg decklids have good stiffness and strength characteristics. These results suggest the feasibility of using Mg sheet closure panels from a structural perspective.
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Hydroplaning Behavior during Steady- State Cornering Maneuvers

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Metz Engineering & Raciing, LLC-L. Daniel Metz
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0986
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles running in wet conditions may experience hydroplaning of one or more tires. Hydroplaning can, and often does, change vehicle braking, acceleration and handling characteristics dramatically. Proper analysis of this behavior requires accommodating the clearing of paths for the rear tires that may result from the front tires engaging the water-coated surface first. In this work, a hydroplaning analysis is presented that examines steady-state cornering under potential hydroplaning situations and includes lateral weight transfer, tire load sensitivity and path clearing potential. The sensitivity of vehicle understeer/oversteer characteristics to path clearing and vehicle dimensional characteristics is also examined.
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On-System Engine Cooling Fan Measurement as a Tool for Optimizing Cooling System Airflow Performance and Noise

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Robert Bosch LLC-Michael Sortor
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1169
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
When designing the vehicle cooling system, accurate knowledge of the required airflow through the heat exchangers is necessary for proper specification of the cooling fan, the heat exchangers, and the associated electrical loads. The simplest method of expressing the engine cooling fan performance requirement is based on the “open air” performance curve measured on the airflow test chamber, excluding effects of the heat exchangers and vehicle environment. However, the difference between open air and on-system airflow performance and noise (installed on the heat exchangers) can be significant due to the influence of the heat exchangers, fan shroud, and downstream blockage on the airflow through the fan. If these factors are neglected in the evaluation of the cooling fan, incorrect specification of the fan performance can result.In this paper, two case studies are presented in which different fan modules, designed for the same vehicle applications, are compared both in open air and installed on the heat exchangers. In both cases, open air test results lead to erroneous conclusions concerning power consumption and noise for a given…
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Finite Element Analysis of Piezoelectric Composite Actuators

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Aerospace Laboratories,INDIA-S Raja
University of Kentucky-Johnson Joseph, Y Charles Lu
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0218
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Piezoelectric materials are smart materials that can undergo mechanical deformation when electrically or thermally activated. An electric voltage is generated on the surfaces when a piezoelectric material is subjected to a mechanical stress. This is referred to as the ‘direct effect’ and finds application as sensors. The external geometric form of this material changes when it is subjected to an applied voltage, known as ‘converse effect’ and has been employed in the actuator technology. Such piezoelectric actuators generate enormous forces and make highly precise movements that are extremely rapid, usually in the micrometer range. The current work is focused towards the realization and hence application of the actuator technology based on piezoelectric actuation. Finite element simulations are performed on different types of piezoelectric actuations to understand the working principle of various actuators. The displacements produced by the multilayered actuators are sometimes insufficient compared with the total displacement requirements such as in injector control valve applications in automotive engine environment, therefore it calls for design of an amplification system to increase the stroke using existing multilayered…
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Investigation on Dynamic Recovery Behavior of Boron Steel 22MnB5 under Austenite State at Elevated Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Tongji University-Junying Min PhD, Jianping Lin
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1057
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Hot forming process of ultrahigh strength boron steel 22MnB5 is widely applied in vehicle industry. It is one of the most effective approaches for vehicle light weighting. Dynamic recovery is the major softening mechanism of the boron steel under austenite state at elevated temperatures. Deformation mechanism of the boron steel can be revealed by investigation on the behavior of dynamic recovery, which could also improve the accuracy of forming simulations for hot stamping. Uniaxial tensile experiments of the boron steel are carried out on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble3800 at elevated temperatures. The true stress-strain curves and the relations between the work hardening rate and flow stress are obtained in different deformation conditions. The work hardening rate decreases linearly with increasing the flow stress. A flow stress model is derived based on Kocks model, and the derivative of the dislocation density with respect to the true strain, which is expressed by the peak stress and initial yield stress, is also deduced considering the dynamic recovery effect. A dynamic recovery efficiency factor h is defined as the…
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Road Characterization for the Simulation of Automotive Vehicle Dynamics

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Mechanical Simulation Corp.-Michael W. Sayers
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0185
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The major actions that move a highway vehicle are the forces and moments generated between the tire and ground; hence, the validity of a simulated vehicle test depends on the quality of both the tire model and the characterization of the ground surface. Other actions come from aerodynamic forces and moments that are affected by the relation of the vehicle body to the ground surface. This paper describes how the ground can be characterized to cover features of interest for most vehicle simulation scenarios involving pavements or other rigid surfaces. The 3D surface is built from tabular data related to specified properties of a road surface such as horizontal geometry, design elevation changes related to curves and drainage (i.e., banking of turns, cross-slope, ditches, etc.), elevation changes due to hills and other major grades, and disturbances and unique features such as bumps and holes. Broadband random-type road roughness is also included. The road model is intended to work with data from many sources, including GPS measurements, design data, road roughness profile measurements, 3D laser-scanned terrain…
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Fatigue Life Predictions under General Multiaxial Loading Based on Simple Material Properties

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chrysler Group LLC-Nima Shamsaei
The University of Toledo-Ali Fatemi
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0487
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A procedure for fatigue life estimation of components and structures under variable amplitude multiaxial loadings based on simple and commonly available material properties is presented. Different aspects of the analysis consisting of load cycle counting method, plasticity model, fatigue damage parameter, and cumulative damage rule are presented. The only needed material properties for the proposed procedure are hardness and monotonic and axial cyclic deformation properties (HB, K, n, K′ and n′). Rainflow cycle counting method is used for identifying number of cycles. Non-proportional cyclic hardening is estimated from monotonic and axial cyclic deformation behaviors. A critical plane approach is used to quantify fatigue damage under variable amplitude multiaxial loading, where only material hardness is used to estimate the fatigue curve, and where the needed deformation response is estimated based on Tanaka's non-proportionality parameter. The commonly used linear damage rule is then used as a cumulative damage rule, to predict fatigue life. This procedure, when compared to experimental results, is shown to yield reasonably accurate predictions under some challenging axial-torsion loading conditions for a medium carbon…
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Vibration Test Specification Design and Reliability Analysis

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Automotive Research & Testing Center-Wei-Lun Chang, Ken-Yuan Lin, Chin-Duo Hsueh, Jung-Ming Chang
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0491
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of the frequency spectrum as derived from a Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system, establish the accelerated vibration specification, and investigate the specification under customer usage with reliability analysis. The main technique is to convert a time domain signal, which is derived from a Proving Ground or customer usage, to the frequency domain. An automotive headlamp was used in our research. The input signal from the Proving Ground was converted into an eight-hour bench test that is equivalent to a five-year/100,000 km field usage through the theory of Fatigue Damage Equivalence. The fatigue parameters of the materials were then estimated from various vibration conditions with the MIL-STD-810F standard. The benefit of this approach is that we could quickly obtain the material parameters of a complex structure made of composite plastics. Our research correlates customer usage with the Proving Ground and compresses the 100,000 km time domain history into an eight-hour laboratory bench test specification to accelerate the effect. In the end, life tests of eight…
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Waste Heat Energy Harvesting for Improving Vehicle Efficiency

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies-Lee Chiew, Michael W. Clegg, Robin H. Willats, Gilbert Delplanque, Edouard Barrieu
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1167
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Currently, in the typical internal combustion engine, approximately one third of fossil fuel combustion by-product is wasted heat. In the continued effort to improve fuel economy, one area that is being researched today is the harvesting of wasted energy to increase vehicle efficiency.This paper will address how heat emitted by exhaust systems can be captured and used to increase vehicle efficiency. Overall we will compare energy content in the exhaust manifold and exhaust underfloor mid-vehicle position, where potential exhaust heat exchanger concepts can reside. These heat exchanger concepts are designed primarily to capture heat from these locations and transfer the energy for increased passenger heating and comfort during cold conditions and/or supplement other improvements in power train efficiencies. An analysis of the energy exchange to the heated fluid is compared in the exhaust manifold and underfloor position respectively. Issues associated with heat energy harvesting from a typical exhaust system will be presented in detail, with suggestions for improving future systems.The innovation behind the Faurecia Exhaust Heat Recovery System (EHRS) performance will be presented in detail…
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A Study of Anisotropy and Post-Necking Local Fracture Strain of Advanced High Strength Steel with the Utilization of Digital Image Correlation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Johns Hopkins University-Juan D. Tobon
Oakland Univ.-Laila Guessous, Lianxiang Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0992
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry has a strong need for lightweight materials capable of withstanding large mechanical loads. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), which have high tensile strength and formability, show great promise for automotive applications, yet if they are to be more widely used, it's important to understand their deformation behavior; this is particularly important for the development of forming limit diagrams (FLD) used in stamping processes. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which anisotropy introduced by the rolling direction affects the local fracture strain. Three grades of dual-phase AHSS and one high-strength low-alloy (HSL A) 50ksi grade steel were tested under plane strain conditions. Half of the samples were loaded along their rolling direction and the other half transverse to it. In order to achieve plane strain conditions, non-standard dogbone samples were loaded on a wide-grip MTS tensile test machine. Strain measurements were made using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). DIC is an optical method which delivers whole-field noncontact measurement of strain, providing the ability to accurately determine peak deformation as…
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