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Nondestructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Japan-Tomohiro Ikeda, Ryuta Motani, Hideki Matsuda, Tatsuya Okayama
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, United States-Bunn R. Jeffery, Christopher M. Fancher
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0018
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material. The research discussed within this article consists of nondestructive residual strain measurements in the interior of connecting rods using the Second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), measuring the Fe (211) diffraction peak position of the ferrite…
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Optimization of Pneumatic Network Actuators with Isosceles Trapezoidal Chambers

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China-Shuxin Wang
Southeast University, China-Fangyu Zhou, Juekuan Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0016
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Soft actuators with pneumatic network have innovative potential applications in medical and rehabilitation areas. The performance of this kind of actuators is determined by the design of chambers and the properties of the active extensible layer and the passive inextensible layer. In this article, actuator with isosceles trapezoidal chambers is proposed. Orthogonal experiment design and finite element method are used to optimize the structure of actuators. Results indicate that adding constrain-limiting paper in the passive layer can significantly reduce the bending radius. Position of the paper in the passive layer also affects the bending radius. Actuators with trapezoidal chambers can have a smaller bending radius compared with that with rectangle chambers. The bending radius decreases as the ratio of short base to long base of trapezoid decreases. Increasing the number density of chambers can further reduce the bending radius. In addition, we find that the optimized actuator not only has a smallest bending radius but also can exert a largest force at its tip.
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Mechanical Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules without and with Electrolyte under Quasi-Static and Dynamic In-Plane Compressive Loading Conditions

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Michigan, USA-Eui Seop Kim, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
University of Ulsan, Republic of Korea-Sung-Tae Hong
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0014
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
Small rectangular representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules without and with electrolyte were tested under quasi-static and dynamic in-plane constrained compressive loading conditions. Effects of electrolyte and loading rate on the compressive behavior of RVE specimens were examined. The test results show that the average buckling stress of the specimens with electrolyte is higher than that of the specimens without electrolyte under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The test results also show that the average buckling stress of the specimens under dynamic loading conditions is higher than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions, without or with the presence of electrolyte in the specimens. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress of the specimens due to electrolyte under dynamic loading conditions is more than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress for the specimens with electrolyte from the quasi-static to dynamic loading conditions is more than that for the specimens without electrolyte.
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Effect of Welding Parameters on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Friction Stir-Welded DP600 Steel

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Isfahan University of Technology, Iran-Hamid Ashrafi, M. Shamanian, R. Emadi, M. Ahl Sarmadi
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0013
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) parameters on the microstructure and tensile properties of dual-phase (DP) steels. In this regard, DP600 steel sheets were joined using FSW under different tool rotational (ω) and transverse speeds (v). Optical microstructure of the stir zone exhibited a mixture of bainite, Widmanstatten ferrite, grain boundary ferrite, and ferrite-carbide (FC) aggregate, which resulted in a hardness increase compared to the base metal (BM). The fraction of bainite and Widmanstatten ferrite in the stir zone increased with increasing the welding heat input. Formation of a softened zone in the subcritical area of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) resulted in the reduction of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation compared to those for the BM, while the yield strength was only marginally affected. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the joint efficiency of friction stir (FS)-welded DP600 steel decreased in a parabolic trend with increasing ω/v value.
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Low Cycle Fatigue and Ratcheting Behavior of SA333 Gr-6 Steel at 300°C Temperature

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, India-Girendra Kumar, Ashok Kumar
National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India-H.N. Bar
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0006
Published 2019-01-23 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this investigation is to study the cyclic deformation behavior of SA333 Gr-6 C-Mn steel at 300°C. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out at total strain amplitude between ±0.35 and ±1.25% at a constant strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1. Ratcheting tests were conducted at a various combination of mean stress and stress amplitude at a constant stress rate of 115 MPa s−1. The material SA333 Gr-6 steel exhibits cyclic hardening throughout its fatigue life. The material shows non-Masing behavior and deviation (δσo ) from Masing behavior increase with an increase in strain amplitude. Ratcheting strain accumulation increases, whereas ratcheting life decreases with an increase in mean stress or stress amplitude. With an increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, ratcheting rate also increases. The material shows hardening characteristic due to dynamic strain aging (DSA) phenomena.
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Evaluation of Weldability and Mechanical Properties in Resistance Spot Welding of Ultrahigh-Strength TRIP1100 Steel

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Isfahan University of Technology, Iran-Iman Hajiannia, Morteza Shamanian, Masoud Atapour
Islamic Azad University, Iran-Rouholah Ashiri
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0001
Published 2018-12-14 by SAE International in United States
To use steel in the automotive industry, it is essential to characterize its weldability and weldable current range. The resistance spot welding of ultrahigh-strength transformation-induced plasticity steel (TRIP1100 steel), which is a candidate for application in an autobody, is studied here. Identifying the weld lobe and the best welding parameters and studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of the spot welds of TRIP steel were done using metallurgical techniques, tensile-shear and cross-tension tests, and fractography and microhardness testing. A partial fracture analysis (stepwise tensile test) showed a crack initiated at the tip of the notch. The best range for welding current was found to be 10-12 kA. The diameter of the weld nugget increased up to 5√t; however, it was found that at least 15% increase in the diameter of the weld nugget can result in a more favorable failure. The ductility ratio was found to be less than 0.5 for ultrahigh-strength steel. At the welding currents of 11 and 12 kA, the desired ductility ratio was achieved.
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Simulation of the Effect of Altitude and Rotational Speed on Transient Temperatures of Rotating Components

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

FCA US LLC, USA-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
OPTUMATICS, LLC, Egypt-AbdelRahman Hekal, Muhannad Hendy
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0003
Published 2018-11-13 by SAE International in United States
During vehicle development process, it is required to estimate potential thermal risk to vehicle components. Several authors have addressed this topic in earlier studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. For evaluation of potential thermal issues, it is desired to estimate the component temperature profile for a given duty cycle. Therefore, the temperature and exposure time at each temperature have to be estimated for each vehicle duty cycle. The duty cycle represents the customer usage of the vehicle for a variety of vehicle speeds and loadings. In this article, we focus on thermal simulation of rotating components such as prop shaft, drive shaft, and half shaft boots. Though these components temperatures can be measured in drive cell or road trips, the instrumentation is usually a complicated task. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they either require physical contact or cannot withstand high-temperature environment in the vehicle underhood or underbody. In this article, a numerical transient thermal analysis for a rotating shaft in the presence of a radiation heat source is presented. In…
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Experimental Study on Forces and Surface Roughness in Peripheral Grinding of an Aluminum Alloy

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Politecnico di Torino, Italy-Eleonora Atzeni, Flaviana Calignano, Alessandro Salmi
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy-Elena Bassoli
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0017
Published 2019-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Peripheral grinding of the aluminum alloy EN AB-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) using a vitrified silicon carbide grinding wheel was investigated in this article. The effect of grinding parameters, namely, grinding speed, feed and depth of cut, and grinding condition, up-grinding or down-grinding, on resulting forces, grinding energy, and surface roughness were analyzed. A 22 × 32 full factorial design of experiments was performed. The ground surface morphology showed evidence of rubbing and plowing effects, and ductile material removal was the main mechanism. Within the analyzed process window, the minimum value of surface roughness was 0.28 μm. The experimental evaluation highlighted that forces and grinding energy are directly dependent on chip thickness, and this relationship was further explored as a function of depth of cut and feed per grain. Conversely, an inverse dependence was observed in the case of surface roughness. Empirical relationships for a reliable prediction of the grinding force and the specific grinding energy were defined. On the contrary, the surface roughness could not be fully modelled by the variation of the kinematic factors considered, and only…
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The Study of Local Stress Intensity Factors for Kinked (and Branched) Cracks in Commonly Used Spot Weld Specimens

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan-Zhi-Long Lin, Pai-Chen Lin
National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan-Dung-An Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0015
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
Local stress intensity factors (LSIFs) for kinked (and branched) cracks of spot welds in lap-shear (LS), cross-tension (CT), U-shaped (US), and coach-peel (CP) specimens were investigated by three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEA). Models of spot welds without and with kinked (and branched) cracks were developed to derive global SIF (GSIF) and LSIF, respectively. Kinked (and branched) cracks with semielliptical shapes were assumed. Two dominant cracking modes were considered for each specimen. Note that fine mesh size and reasonable mesh design for crack tip regions were adopted to improve the computation accuracy. GSIFs for main crack were obtained to derive local SIFs for infinitesimal kinked cracks. LSIFs for finite kinked (and branched) cracks were then obtained. The computational results show that the LSIF solutions of the four specimens have similar general trends. As kinked (and branched) crack length increases, mode I LSIF solutions gradually increase and then decrease, while mode II LSIF solutions show inverse trends. Finally, applications of local SIFs for fatigue life estimations of spot welds were discussed.
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A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Vellore Institute of Technology, India-Nilesh Satonkar, Venkatachalam Gopalan
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0010
Published 2019-05-29 by SAE International in United States
Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
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