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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Scott J. Curran, James E. Parks, Robert M. Wagner
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0515
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has demonstrated diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are higher and similar to those of port-fuel-injected (PFI) gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures during RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatment technologies. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated under steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260°C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performance of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like…
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Impact of Viscosity Modifiers on Gear Oil Efficiency and Durability: Part II

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Lubrizol Corp.-Daniel Jason Knapton, Mark Baker, Elizabeth A. Schiferl
Lubrizol Corporation-Michael Huston
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0299
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper outlines the second part in a series on the effect of polymeric additives commonly known as viscosity modifiers (VM) or viscosity index improvers (VII) on gear oil efficiency and durability. The main role of the VM is to improve cold temperature lubrication and reduce the rate of viscosity reduction as the gear oil warms to operating temperature. However, in addition to improved operating efficiency across a broad temperature range compared to monograde fluids the VM can impart a number of other significant rheological improvements to the fluid [1]. This paper expands on the first paper in the series [2], covering further aspects in fluid efficiency, the effect of VM chemistry on these and their relationship to differences in hypoid and spur gear rig efficiency testing.Numerous VM chemistry types are available and the VM chemistry and shear stability is key to fluid efficiency and durability. The trend of increased drivetrain power density and reduced sump volume places even more burden on the fluid film protection with increasing load in the contact and increased number…
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Microbiological Growth Study of Biodiesel Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Technical Univ of Athens-George S. Dodos, Fanourios Zannikos
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1148
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The diesel fuel supply chain faces new challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms in biodiesel fuel. FAME's (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) chemical composition along with its hygroscopic nature makes it more “biologically active” and as a result the final blends could be more prone to microbiological contamination. Survey of in-field incidents and facts in the Greek supply chain indicate that biodiesel is more prone to microbial growth. Furthermore, several experimental studies which demonstrate the susceptibility of biodiesel fuel for microbial growth have been conducted in the laboratory. The influence of FAME has been evaluated as well as the effect of microbial proliferation on the quality of the blend. Different types of biodiesel have been blended with Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel at various concentrations, and the resulting blends were mixed with bottom-water of known viable microbial colonies and stored. During storage the microbiological growth was monitored by employing both semi-quantitative and quantitative methodologies. Alterations on the fuel's quality parameters were also examined. The overall observations and results support the rationale for establishing a standard inspection/action plan…
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Alternative Porous Media and Designs for Automotive Oil Filters

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Northeastern Univ.-Yiannis A. Levendis
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0492
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Alternative automotive engine oil filtration devices are described herein, aiming at alleviating the environmental issues caused by conventional one-piece, spin-on, throwaway filters. The spin-on feature has been retained in these novel filters, to facilitate retrofitting, however provisions to dismantle the filter have been incorporated to allow for periodic replacement of the filter element (cartridge). The filter element is made of ceramic powder and, upon replacement, it may be treated and reused as such, or it may be crushed, treated and remanufactured from the recycled powder. In the process, the entirety of the used motor oil may be retrieved, treated and reused, thus conserving energy and resources, minimizing waste streams and, most importantly, preventing environmental ground-water contamination. The ceramic filter element (made of silicon carbide, cordierite or mullite) is extruded in the typical configuration of a honeycomb-shaped monolith, with adjacent channels plugged at alternate ends. The element is housed in an easy-to-dismantle casing. The filter element may be replaced at every vehicle oil change, but not the casing which is intended to last the lifetime of…
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Cold Start Concept (CSC™): A Novel Catalyst for Cold Start Emission Control

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Johnson Matthey Inc.-Hai-Ying Chen, Shadab Mulla, Erich Weigert, Kenneth Camm, Todd Ballinger, Julian Cox, Phil Blakeman
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0535
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic emission control systems are installed on nearly all automobiles and heavy-duty trucks produced today to reduce exhaust emissions for the vehicles to meet government regulations. Current systems can achieve very high efficiencies in reducing tailpipe emissions once the catalytic components reach their operating temperatures. They are, however, relatively ineffective at temperatures below their operating temperature windows, especially during the cold start period of the vehicles. With the increasingly stringent government regulations, reducing the emissions during the cold start period before the catalytic components reach their operating temperatures is becoming a major challenge.For cold start HC control, HC traps based on zeolites have been investigated and commercialized for certain applications. For cold start NOx control, especially in lean burn engine exhaust, NOx storage and release catalysts have been evaluated. In this paper we will introduce a novel catalyst which we refer to as Cold Start Concept (CSC™) catalyst technology. This cold start catalyst not only stores HC and NOx at low temperatures with very high storage efficiencies, but also converts a significant portion of the…
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N2O Emissions of Low Emission Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Umicore Autocat USA Inc.-Douglas Ball, David Moser, Yonghong Yang, David Lewis
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1300
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have finalized regulation that will reduce greenhouse gases and increase fuel economy for model year (MY) 2012-2016 light-duty vehicles. This ruling not only includes a CO₂ standard that will require vehicles to achieve fleet average 35 mpg by MY 2016, but will apply a cap on nitrous oxide (N₂O) and methane emissions to 10 and 30 mg/mile, respectively, however CO₂ emission reductions can be exchanged for either N₂O or methane credit. The work outlined investigates the N₂O emissions of a variety of low emission vehicles per the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure both bag and modal N₂O emissions. N₂O emissions were less than 1 mg/mile for three SULEV vehicles with 6,400 km-aged catalysts. For 240,000 km equivalent dynamometer-aged catalyst systems, N₂O emissions varied from 1.3 to 8 mg/mile on various low emission vehicles. Both close-coupled and underfloor catalysts can generate N₂O emissions especially during the cold and warm engine starts. Most catalysts…
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Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Birmingham Univ-Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Akbar Ghafourian, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan
Tsinghua University-Shi-Jin Shuai
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1302
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions. In addition, the largest PN transient spikes were observed for all the fuels in the test within the low-medium load speed change. Furthermore, the size of the spikes in PN decreased with the biodiesel blend…
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Cold and Warm Start Characteristics using HVO and RME Blends in a V6 Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Birmingham Univ-Dai Liu, Hongming Xu, Jianyi Tian, Cheng Tan
Tsinghua University-Yanfei Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1306
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60. The accumulation particle of using mineral diesel was higher than RME60 but lower than…
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Application of the Pegasor Particle Sensor for the Measurement of Mass and Particle Number Emissions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Zissis Samaras
Pegasor Oy-Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1561
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) is a small and lightweight sensor that can be used directly in raw exhaust to provide the mass and number concentration of exhaust aerosol. Its operation principle is based on the electrical charging of exhaust aerosol and determination of particle concentration by measuring the charge accumulated on the particles. In this paper we have applied the PPS in a variety of vehicle exhaust configurations to evaluate its performance characteristics. First, the output signal of the instrument was calibrated with diesel exhaust to deliver either the mass or the number concentration of exhaust aerosol. Linear response with the soot mass concentration measured by a Photo Acoustic Soot Sensor and number concentration measured by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor was established. Based on this calibration, the instrument was then used to measure particle concentrations at levels produced by a gasoline direct injection vehicle and diesel exhaust filtered by particle filters of variable efficiency. Hence, the complete range of concentrations and particle characteristics typically encountered in automotive exhaust has been examined. The results…
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The Effect of Low Viscosity Oil on the Wear, Friction and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy Duty Truck Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Infineum UK Ltd-Ian Field, Emmanuel Lainé
Infineum USA LP-Jai Bansal, Maryann Devine
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0331
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the results of a series of tests on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine using conventional and low viscosity lubricants. The objectives were to explore the impact of reducing lubricant viscosity on wear, friction and fuel consumption. The radiotracing Thin Layer Activation method was used to make on-line measurements of wear at the cylinder liner, top piston ring, connecting rod small end bush and intake cam lobe. The engine was operated under a wide range of conditions (load, speed and temperature) and with lubricants of several different viscosity grades. Results indicate the relationship between lubricant viscosity and wear at four critical locations. Wear at other locations was assessed by analysis of wear metals and post test inspection.The fuel consumption was then measured on the same engine with the same lubricants. Results indicate the relationship between oil viscosity and fuel consumption under a wide range of operating conditions. Expected fuel consumption improvements over a typical drive cycle were calculated.Friction of the whole engine was calculated from measurements of cylinder pressure and brake torque, with…
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